Results for 'Floridi Luciano'

93 found
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  1.  62
    What the Near Future of Artificial Intelligence Could Be.Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (1):1-15.
    In this article, I shall argue that AI’s likely developments and possible challenges are best understood if we interpret AI not as a marriage between some biological-like intelligence and engineered artefacts, but as a divorce between agency and intelligence, that is, the ability to solve problems successfully and the necessity of being intelligent in doing so. I shall then look at five developments: (1) the growing shift from logic to statistics, (2) the progressive adaptation of the environment to AI rather (...)
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  2.  54
    Translating Principles Into Practices of Digital Ethics: Five Risks of Being Unethical.Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (2):185-193.
    Modern digital technologies—from web-based services to Artificial Intelligence (AI) solutions—increasingly affect the daily lives of billions of people. Such innovation brings huge opportunities, but also concerns about design, development, and deployment of digital technologies. This article identifies and discusses five clusters of risk in the international debate about digital ethics: ethics shopping; ethics bluewashing; ethics lobbying; ethics dumping; and ethics shirking.
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  3. Recommender Systems and Their Ethical Challenges.Silvia Milano, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - AI and Society (4):957-967.
    This article presents the first, systematic analysis of the ethical challenges posed by recommender systems through a literature review. The article identifies six areas of concern, and maps them onto a proposed taxonomy of different kinds of ethical impact. The analysis uncovers a gap in the literature: currently user-centred approaches do not consider the interests of a variety of other stakeholders—as opposed to just the receivers of a recommendation—in assessing the ethical impacts of a recommender system.
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  4. Transparent, Explainable, and Accountable AI for Robotics.Sandra Wachter, Brent Mittelstadt & Luciano Floridi - 2017 - Science (Robotics) 2 (6):eaan6080.
    To create fair and accountable AI and robotics, we need precise regulation and better methods to certify, explain, and audit inscrutable systems.
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  5.  22
    The Fight for Digital Sovereignty: What It is, and Why It Matters, Especially for the EU.Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (3):369-378.
    Digital sovereignty, and the question of who ultimately controls AI seems, at first glance, to be an issue that concerns only specialists, politicians and corporate entities. And yet the fight for who will win digital sovereignty has far-reaching societal implications. Drawing on five case studies, the paper argues that digital sovereignty affects everyone, whether digital users or not, and makes the case for a hybrid system of control which has the potential to offer full democratic legitimacy as well as innovative (...)
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  6.  22
    Ethical Foresight Analysis: What It is and Why It is Needed?Luciano Floridi & Andrew Strait - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (1):77-97.
    An increasing number of technology firms are implementing processes to identify and evaluate the ethical risks of their systems and products. A key part of these review processes is to foresee potential impacts of these technologies on different groups of users. In this article, we use the expression Ethical Foresight Analysis to refer to a variety of analytical strategies for anticipating or predicting the ethical issues that new technological artefacts, services, and applications may raise. This article examines several existing EFA (...)
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  7.  57
    What a Maker’s Knowledge Could Be.Luciano Floridi - 2018 - Synthese 195 (1):465-481.
    Three classic distinctions specify that truths can be necessary versus contingent,analytic versus synthetic, and a priori versus a posteriori. The philosopher reading this article knows very well both how useful and ordinary such distinctions are in our conceptual work and that they have been subject to many and detailed debates, especially the last two. In the following pages, I do not wish to discuss how far they may be tenable. I shall assume that, if they are reasonable and non problematic (...)
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  8.  30
    Marketing as Control of Human Interfaces and its Political Exploitation.Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (3):379-388.
    In previous works, I defined ourselves as informational organisms, or inforgs for short, who forage for, produce, cultivate, curate, process, and consume information (Floridi 2013). Yet, we may also be understood as interfaces, who inhabit and interact with, an environment also made up of data and computational processes. By describing ourselves in such terms, this paper argues that we can better understand several crucial phenomena that characterise our digital age, including marketing and the “marketisation” of political communication. The article (...)
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  9.  36
    AI and its New Winter: From Myths to Realities.Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (1):1-3.
    An AI winter may be defined as the stage when technology, business, and the media come to terms with what AI can or cannot really do as a technology without exaggeration. Through discussion of previous AI winters, this paper examines the hype cycle (which by turn characterises AI as a social panacea or a nightmare of apocalyptic proportions) and argues that AI should be treated as a normal technology, neither as a miracle nor as a plague, but rather as of (...)
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  10.  21
    Autonomous Vehicles: From Whether and When to Where and How.Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Philosophy and Technology 32 (4):569-573.
    The digital revolution, in the form of autonomous driving, is changing the very essence of mobility. This paper discusses four different ways in which these transformations are taking place and argues that public policies and business strategies need to focus on innovating and re-engineering (enveloping) whole environments. Only then will autonomous vehicles become an ordinary – and environmentally sustainable – reality. -/- .
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  11.  3
    Establishing the Rules for Building Trustworthy AI.Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Nature Machine Intelligence 1:261-262.
    AI is revolutionizing everyone’s life, and it is crucial that it does so in the right way. AI’s profound and far-reaching potential for transformation concerns the engineering of systems that have some degree of autonomous agency. This is epochal and requires establishing a new, ethical balance between human and artificial autonomy.
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  12. The Ethics of Digital Well-Being: A Thematic Review.Christopher Burr, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics:1-31.
    This article presents the first thematic review of the literature on the ethical issues concerning digital well-being. The term ‘digital well-being’ is used to refer to the impact of digital technologies on what it means to live a life that is good for a human being. The review explores the existing literature on the ethics of digital well-being, with the goal of mapping the current debate and identifying open questions for future research. The review identifies major issues related to several (...)
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  13.  2
    Should We Be Afraid of AI?Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Aeon Magazine.
    Machines seem to be getting smarter and smarter and much better at human jobs, yet true AI is utterly implausible. This article explains the reasons why this is the case.
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  14.  38
    From What to How: An Initial Review of Publicly Available AI Ethics Tools, Methods and Research to Translate Principles Into Practices.Jessica Morley, Luciano Floridi, Libby Kinsey & Anat Elhalal - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2141-2168.
    The debate about the ethical implications of Artificial Intelligence dates from the 1960s :741–742, 1960; Wiener in Cybernetics: or control and communication in the animal and the machine, MIT Press, New York, 1961). However, in recent years symbolic AI has been complemented and sometimes replaced by Neural Networks and Machine Learning techniques. This has vastly increased its potential utility and impact on society, with the consequence that the ethical debate has gone mainstream. Such a debate has primarily focused on principles—the (...)
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  15. The Ethics of Algorithms: Mapping the Debate.Brent Mittelstadt, Patrick Allo, Mariarosaria Taddeo, Sandra Wachter & Luciano Floridi - 2016 - Big Data and Society 3 (2).
    In information societies, operations, decisions and choices previously left to humans are increasingly delegated to algorithms, which may advise, if not decide, about how data should be interpreted and what actions should be taken as a result. More and more often, algorithms mediate social processes, business transactions, governmental decisions, and how we perceive, understand, and interact among ourselves and with the environment. Gaps between the design and operation of algorithms and our understanding of their ethical implications can have severe consequences (...)
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  16.  79
    From the Philosophy of AI to the Philosophy of Information.Luciano Floridi - 2004 - The Philosophers’ Magazine 28 (4):56-60.
    Computational and information-theoretic research in philosophy has become increasingly fertile and pervasive, giving rise to a wealth of interesting results. Consequently, a new and vitally important field has emerged, the philosophy of information (PI). This paper introduces PI as the philosophical field concerned with (i) the critical investigation of the conceptual nature and basic principles of information, including its dynamics, utilisation and sciences, and with (ii) the elaboration and application of information-theoretic and computational methodologies to philosophical problems. It is argued (...)
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  17. The Ethics of Cloud Computing.Boudewijn de Bruin & Luciano Floridi - 2017 - Science and Engineering Ethics 23 (1):21-39.
    Cloud computing is rapidly gaining traction in business. It offers businesses online services on demand (such as Gmail, iCloud and Salesforce) and allows them to cut costs on hardware and IT support. This is the first paper in business ethics dealing with this new technology. It analyzes the informational duties of hosting companies that own and operate cloud computing datacenters (e.g., Amazon). It considers the cloud services providers leasing ‘space in the cloud’ from hosting companies (e.g, Dropbox, Salesforce). And it (...)
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  18. Solving the Symbol Grounding Problem: A Critical Review of Fifteen Years of Research.Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - unknown
    This article reviews eight proposed strategies for solving the Symbol Grounding Problem (SGP), which was given its classic formulation in Harnad (1990). After a concise introduction, we provide an analysis of the requirement that must be satisfied by any hypothesis seeking to solve the SGP, the zero semantical commitment condition. We then use it to assess the eight strategies, which are organised into three main approaches: representationalism, semi-representationalism and non-representationalism. The conclusion is that all the strategies are semantically committed and (...)
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  19.  15
    Ethics-Based Auditing to Develop Trustworthy AI.Jakob Mökander & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Minds and Machines.
    A series of recent developments points towards auditing as a promising mechanism to bridge the gap between principles and practice in AI ethics. Building on ongoing discussions concerning ethics-based auditing, we offer three contributions. First, we argue that ethics-based auditing can improve the quality of decision making, increase user satisfaction, unlock growth potential, enable law-making, and relieve human suffering. Second, we highlight current best practices to support the design and implementation of ethics-based auditing: To be feasible and effective, ethics-based auditing (...)
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  20.  19
    The Ethics of Digital Well-Being: A Thematic Review.Christopher Burr, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (4):2313-2343.
    This article presents the first thematic review of the literature on the ethical issues concerning digital well-being. The term ‘digital well-being’ is used to refer to the impact of digital technologies on what it means to live a life that is good for a human being. The review explores the existing literature on the ethics of digital well-being, with the goal of mapping the current debate and identifying open questions for future research. The review identifies major issues related to several (...)
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  21.  29
    The explanation game: a formal framework for interpretable machine learning.David S. Watson & Luciano Floridi - forthcoming - Synthese:1-32.
    We propose a formal framework for interpretable machine learning. Combining elements from statistical learning, causal interventionism, and decision theory, we design an idealised explanation game in which players collaborate to find the best explanation for a given algorithmic prediction. Through an iterative procedure of questions and answers, the players establish a three-dimensional Pareto frontier that describes the optimal trade-offs between explanatory accuracy, simplicity, and relevance. Multiple rounds are played at different levels of abstraction, allowing the players to explore overlapping causal (...)
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  22.  47
    Crowdsourced Science: Sociotechnical Epistemology in the E-Research Paradigm.David Watson & Luciano Floridi - 2018 - Synthese 195 (2):741-764.
    Recent years have seen a surge in online collaboration between experts and amateurs on scientific research. In this article, we analyse the epistemological implications of these crowdsourced projects, with a focus on Zooniverse, the world’s largest citizen science web portal. We use quantitative methods to evaluate the platform’s success in producing large volumes of observation statements and high impact scientific discoveries relative to more conventional means of data processing. Through empirical evidence, Bayesian reasoning, and conceptual analysis, we show how information (...)
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  23. Ethical Aspects of Multi-Stakeholder Recommendation Systems.Silvia Milano, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - The Information Society 37 (1):35-45.
    This article analyses the ethical aspects of multistakeholder recommendation systems (RSs). Following the most common approach in the literature, we assume a consequentialist framework to introduce the main concepts of multistakeholder recommendation. We then consider three research questions: who are the stakeholders in a RS? How are their interests taken into account when formulating a recommendation? And, what is the scientific paradigm underlying RSs? Our main finding is that multistakeholder RSs (MRSs) are designed and theorised, methodologically, according to neoclassical welfare (...)
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  24.  3
    Ethics of Digital Well-Being: A Multidisciplinary Approach.Christopher Burr & Luciano Floridi (eds.) - forthcoming - Springer.
    This chapter serves as an introduction to the edited collection of the same name, which includes chapters that explore digital well-being from a range of disciplinary perspectives, including philosophy, psychology, economics, health care, and education. The purpose of this introductory chapter is to provide a short primer on the different disciplinary approaches to the study of well-being. To supplement this primer, we also invited key experts from several disciplines—philosophy, psychology, public policy, and health care—to share their thoughts on what they (...)
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  25.  32
    The Limits of Empowerment: How to Reframe the Role of mHealth Tools in the Healthcare Ecosystem.Jessica Morley & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (3):1159-1183.
    This article highlights the limitations of the tendency to frame health- and wellbeing-related digital tools as empowering devices, especially as they play an increasingly important role in the National Health Service in the UK. It argues that mHealth technologies should instead be framed as digital companions. This shift from empowerment to companionship is advocated by showing the conceptual, ethical, and methodological issues challenging the narrative of empowerment, and by arguing that such challenges, as well as the risk of medical paternalism, (...)
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  26.  20
    Prayer-Bots and Religious Worship on Twitter: A Call for a Wider Research Agenda.Carl Öhman, Robert Gorwa & Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Minds and Machines 29 (2):331-338.
    The automation of online social life is an urgent issue for researchers and the public alike. However, one of the most significant uses of such technologies seems to have gone largely unnoticed by the research community: religion. Focusing on Islamic Prayer Apps, which automatically post prayers from its users’ accounts, we show that even one such service is already responsible for millions of tweets daily, constituting a significant portion of Arabic-language Twitter traffic. We argue that the fact that a phenomenon (...)
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  27. Digital Psychiatry: Ethical Risks and Opportunities for Public Health and Well-Being.Christopher Burr, Jessica Morley, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society 1 (1):21-33.
    Common mental health disorders are rising globally, creating a strain on public healthcare systems. This has led to a renewed interest in the role that digital technologies may have for improving mental health outcomes. One result of this interest is the development and use of artificial intelligence for assessing, diagnosing, and treating mental health issues, which we refer to as ‘digital psychiatry’. This article focuses on the increasing use of digital psychiatry outside of clinical settings, in the following sectors: education, (...)
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  28. Mathematical Skepticism : The Debate Between Hobbes and Wallis.Luciano Floridi - 2004 - In Maia Neto, José Raimundo & Richard H. Popkin (eds.), Skepticism in Renaissance and Post-Renaissance Thought: New Interpretations. Humanity Books.
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  29. Designing AI for Social Good: Seven Essential Factors.Josh Cowls, Thomas C. King, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - manuscript
    The idea of Artificial Intelligence for Social Good (henceforth AI4SG) is gaining traction within information societies in general and the AI community in particular. It has the potential to address social problems effectively through the development of AI-based solutions. Yet, to date, there is only limited understanding of what makes AI socially good in theory, what counts as AI4SG in practice, and how to reproduce its initial successes in terms of policies (Cath et al. 2018). This article addresses this gap (...)
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  30.  38
    The Ethics of Algorithms: Key Problems and Solutions.Andreas Tsamados, Nikita Aggarwal, Josh Cowls, Jessica Morley, Huw Roberts, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - AI and Society.
    Research on the ethics of algorithms has grown substantially over the past decade. Alongside the exponential development and application of machine learning algorithms, new ethical problems and solutions relating to their ubiquitous use in society have been proposed. This article builds on a review of the ethics of algorithms published in 2016, 2016). The goals are to contribute to the debate on the identification and analysis of the ethical implications of algorithms, to provide an updated analysis of epistemic and normative (...)
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  31.  4
    Clinical Applications of Machine Learning Algorithms: Beyond the Black Box.David S. Watson, Jenny Krutzinna, Ian N. Bruce, Christopher E. M. Griffiths, Iain B. McInnes, Michael R. Barnes & Luciano Floridi - 2019 - British Medical Journal 364:I886.
    Machine learning algorithms may radically improve our ability to diagnose and treat disease. For moral, legal, and scientific reasons, it is essential that doctors and patients be able to understand and explain the predictions of these models. Scalable, customisable, and ethical solutions can be achieved by working together with relevant stakeholders, including patients, data scientists, and policy makers.
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  32.  31
    The Chinese Approach to Artificial Intelligence: An Analysis of Policy, Ethics, and Regulation.Huw Roberts, Josh Cowls, Jessica Morley, Mariarosaria Taddeo, Vincent Wang & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - AI and Society 36 (1):59-77.
    In July 2017, China’s State Council released the country’s strategy for developing artificial intelligence, entitled ‘New Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Plan’. This strategy outlined China’s aims to become the world leader in AI by 2030, to monetise AI into a trillion-yuan industry, and to emerge as the driving force in defining ethical norms and standards for AI. Several reports have analysed specific aspects of China’s AI policies or have assessed the country’s technical capabilities. Instead, in this article, we focus on (...)
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  33.  64
    Artificial Intelligence Crime: An Interdisciplinary Analysis of Foreseeable Threats and Solutions.Thomas C. King, Nikita Aggarwal, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (1):89-120.
    Artificial intelligence research and regulation seek to balance the benefits of innovation against any potential harms and disruption. However, one unintended consequence of the recent surge in AI research is the potential re-orientation of AI technologies to facilitate criminal acts, term in this article AI-Crime. AIC is theoretically feasible thanks to published experiments in automating fraud targeted at social media users, as well as demonstrations of AI-driven manipulation of simulated markets. However, because AIC is still a relatively young and inherently (...)
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  34.  7
    Artificial Intelligence as a Public Service: Learning From Amsterdam and Helsinki.Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Philosophy and Technology 33 (4):541-546.
    In September 2020, Helsinki and Amsterdam announced the launch of their open AI registers—the first cities in the world to offer such a service. The AI registers describe what, where, and how AI applications are being used in the two municipalities; how algorithms were assessed for potential bias or risks; and how humans use the AI services. Examining issues of security and transparency, this paper discusses the potential for implementing AI in an urban public service setting and how this might (...)
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  35.  32
    GPT-3: Its Nature, Scope, Limits, and Consequences.Luciano Floridi & Massimo Chiriatti - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (4):681-694.
    In this commentary, we discuss the nature of reversible and irreversible questions, that is, questions that may enable one to identify the nature of the source of their answers. We then introduce GPT-3, a third-generation, autoregressive language model that uses deep learning to produce human-like texts, and use the previous distinction to analyse it. We expand the analysis to present three tests based on mathematical, semantic, and ethical questions and show that GPT-3 is not designed to pass any of them. (...)
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  36.  16
    Trump, Parler, and Regulating the Infosphere as Our Commons.Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Philosophy and Technology 34 (1):1-5.
    Following the storming of the US Capitol building, Donald Trump became digitally toxic, and was deplatformed from Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and YouTube—as well as a host of other social media networks. Subsequent debate has centred on the questions of whether these companies did the right thing and the possible ramifications of their actions for the future of digital societies along with their democratic organisation. This article seeks to answer this question through examining complex, and seemingly contradictory notions (legality and the (...)
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  37. Lunch Uncertain [Review Of: Floridi, Luciano (2011) The Philosophy of Information (Oxford)]. [REVIEW]Stevan Harnad - 2011 - Times Literary Supplement 5664 (22-23).
    The usual way to try to ground knowing according to contemporary theory of knowledge is: We know something if (1) it’s true, (2) we believe it, and (3) we believe it for the “right” reasons. Floridi proposes a better way. His grounding is based partly on probability theory, and partly on a question/answer network of verbal and behavioural interactions evolving in time. This is rather like modeling the data-exchange between a data-seeker who needs to know which button to press (...)
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  38.  8
    The AI Gambit — Leveraging Artificial Intelligence to Combat Climate Change: Opportunities, Challenges, and Recommendations.Josh Cowls, Andreas Tsamados, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - In Vodafone Institute for Society and Communications.
    In this article we analyse the role that artificial intelligence (AI) could play, and is playing, to combat global climate change. We identify two crucial opportunities that AI offers in this domain: it can help improve and expand current understanding of climate change and it contribute to combating the climate crisis effectively. However, the development of AI also raises two sets of problems when considering climate change: the possible exacerbation of social and ethical challenges already associated with AI, and the (...)
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  39.  3
    A United Framework of Five Principles for AI in Society.Luciano Floridi & Josh Cowls - 2019 - Harvard Data Science Review 1 (1).
    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is already having a major impact on society. As a result, many organizations have launched a wide range of initiatives to establish ethical principles for the adoption of socially beneficial AI. Unfortunately, the sheer volume of proposed principles threatens to overwhelm and confuse. How might this problem of ‘principle proliferation’ be solved? In this paper, we report the results of a fine-grained analysis of several of the highest-profile sets of ethical principles for AI. We assess whether these (...)
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  40.  7
    Innovating with Confidence: Embedding AI Governance and Fairness in a Financial Services Risk Management Framework.Luciano Floridi, Michelle Seng Ah Lee & Alexander Denev - 2020 - Berkeley Technology Law Journal 34.
    An increasing number of financial services (FS) companies are adopting solutions driven by artificial intelligence (AI) to gain operational efficiencies, derive strategic insights, and improve customer engagement. However, the rate of adoption has been low, in part due to the apprehension around its complexity and self-learning capability, which makes auditability a challenge in a highly regulated industry. There is limited literature on how FS companies can implement the governance and controls specific to AI-driven solutions. AI auditing cannot be performed in (...)
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  41.  9
    The Green and the Blue: A New Political Ontology for a Mature Information Society.Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Philosophisches Jahrbuch 127 (2):307-338.
    Today, in any mature information society, we live neither online nor offline but on life, that is, we increasingly live in that special space that is both analogue and digital, both online and offline. Imagine someone asking whether the water is fresh or salty in the estuary where the river meets the sea. That someone has not understood the special nature of the place. Our information society is that place. And our technologies are perfectly evolved to take advantage of it, (...)
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  42.  9
    Ethical Guidelines for COVID-19 Tracing Apps.Jessica Morley, Josh Cowls, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Nature 582:29-31.
    Technologies to rapidly alert people when they have been in contact with someone carrying the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 are part of a strategy to bring the pandemic under control. Currently, at least 47 contact-tracing apps are available globally. They are already in use in Australia, South Korea and Singapore, for instance. And many other governments are testing or considering them. Here we set out 16 questions to assess whether — and to what extent — a contact-tracing app is ethically justifiable.
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  43.  28
    Algorithmic Fairness in Mortgage Lending: From Absolute Conditions to Relational Trade-Offs.Michelle Seng Ah Lee & Luciano Floridi - 2021 - Minds and Machines 31 (1):165-191.
    To address the rising concern that algorithmic decision-making may reinforce discriminatory biases, researchers have proposed many notions of fairness and corresponding mathematical formalizations. Each of these notions is often presented as a one-size-fits-all, absolute condition; however, in reality, the practical and ethical trade-offs are unavoidable and more complex. We introduce a new approach that considers fairness—not as a binary, absolute mathematical condition—but rather, as a relational notion in comparison to alternative decisionmaking processes. Using US mortgage lending as an example use (...)
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  44.  12
    An Empathy Imitation Game: Empathy Turing Test for Care- and Chat-Bots.Jeremy Howick, Jessica Morley & Luciano Floridi - forthcoming - Minds and Machines:1-5.
    AI, in the form of artificial carers, provides a possible solution to the problem of a growing elderly population Yet, concerns remain that artificial carers ( such as care-or chat-bots) could not emphathize with patients to the extent that humans can. Utilising the concept of empathy perception,we propose a Turing-type test that could check whether artificial carers could do many of the menial tasks human carers currently undertake, and in the process, free up more time for doctors to offer empathy. (...)
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  45.  11
    Towards the Ethical Publication of Country of Origin Information (COI) in the Asylum Process.Nikita Aggarwal & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - Minds and Machines 30 (2):247-257.
    This article addresses the question of how ‘Country of Origin Information’ reports—that is, research developed and used to support decision-making in the asylum process—can be published in an ethical manner. The article focuses on the risk that published COI reports could be misused and thereby harm the subjects of the reports and/or those involved in their development. It supports a situational approach to assessing data ethics when publishing COI reports, whereby COI service providers must weigh up the benefits and harms (...)
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  46. The Ethics of Digital Well-Being: A Multidisciplinary Perspective.Christopher Burr & Luciano Floridi - forthcoming - In Christopher Burr & Luciano Floridi (eds.), Ethics of Digital Well-Being: A Multidisciplinary Perspective. Springer.
    This chapter serves as an introduction to the edited collection of the same name, which includes chapters that explore digital well-being from a range of disciplinary perspectives, including philosophy, psychology, economics, health care, and education. The purpose of this introductory chapter is to provide a short primer on the different disciplinary approaches to the study of well-being. To supplement this primer, we also invited key experts from several disciplines—philosophy, psychology, public policy, and health care—to share their thoughts on what they (...)
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  47.  19
    Enabling Posthumous Medical Data Donation: An Appeal for the Ethical Utilisation of Personal Health Data.Jenny Krutzinna, Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi - 2019 - Science and Engineering Ethics 25 (5):1357-1387.
    This article argues that personal medical data should be made available for scientific research, by enabling and encouraging individuals to donate their medical records once deceased, similar to the way in which they can already donate organs or bodies. This research is part of a project on posthumous medical data donation developed by the Digital Ethics Lab at the Oxford Internet Institute at the University of Oxford. Ten arguments are provided to support the need to foster posthumous medical data donation. (...)
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  48.  7
    Formalising Trade-Offs Beyond Algorithmic Fairness: Lessons From Ethical Philosophy and Welfare Economics.Michelle Seng Ah Lee, Luciano Floridi & Jatinder Singh - forthcoming - AI and Ethics.
    There is growing concern that decision-making informed by machine learning (ML) algorithms may unfairly discriminate based on personal demographic attributes, such as race and gender. Scholars have responded by introducing numerous mathematical definitions of fairness to test the algorithm, many of which are in conflict with one another. However, these reductionist representations of fairness often bear little resemblance to real-life fairness considerations, which in practice are highly contextual. Moreover, fairness metrics tend to be implemented in narrow and targeted toolkits that (...)
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  49.  9
    An Ethically Mindful Approach to AI for Health Care.Jessica Morley & Luciano Floridi - 2020 - The Lancet 395 (10220):254-255.
    Health-care systems worldwide face increasing demand, a rise in chronic disease, and resource constraints. At the same time, the use of digital health technologies in all care settings has led to an expansion of data. For this reason, policy makers, politicians, clinical entrepreneurs, and computer and data scientists argue that a key part of health-care solutions will be artificial Intelligence (AI), particularly machine learning AI forms a key part of the National Health Service (NHS) Long-Term Plan (2019) in England, the (...)
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  50.  7
    Enabling Digital Health Companionship is Better Than Empowerment.Jessica Morley & Luciano Floridi - 2019 - The Lancet 1 (4):e155-e156.
    Digital Health Tools (DHTs), also known as patient self-surveilling strategies, have increasingly been promoted by health-care policy makers as technologies that have the capacity to transform patients’ lives. At the heart of the debate is the notion of empowerment. In this paper, we argue that what is required is not so much empowerment but rather a shift to enabling DHTs as digital companions. This will enable policy makers and health-care system designers to provide a more balanced view—one that capitalises on (...)
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