Results for 'G. W. Leibniz'

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  1.  51
    G. W. Leibniz apperseptiosta.Markku Roinila - 2001 - Ajatus 58:91-105.
    This paper discusses Leibniz's views on apperception, especially in the context of this pseudo-dialogue with John Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. I emphasize the role of attention in the process of becoming conscious of a perception.
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  2. G. W. Leibniz's Theory of Rational Decision-Making and the Reunion of the Churches.Markku Roinila - 2001 - In Hans Poser, Christoph Asmuth, Ursula Goldenbaum & Wenchao Li (eds.), Nihil sine ratione. Mensch, Natur un Technik im Wirken von G. W. Leibniz. G. W. Leibniz Geschellschaft. pp. 1069-1076.
    I attempt to appy Leibniz's vectorial model of rational decision-making to a memoir on church reunion.
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  3.  3
    G. W. Leibniz: Obras Filosóficas Y Científicas, Vol. 14: Correspondencia I. [REVIEW]Leticia Cabañas - 2008 - Daimon: Revista Internacional de Filosofía 45:175-177.
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  4. G.W. Leibniz: Sign and the Problem of Expression.Dimitri A. Bayuk & Olga B. Fedorova - 2020 - Epistemology and Philosophy of Science 57 (1):146-165.
    The disciplinary differentiation of sciences attracted Leibniz’s attention for a long period of time. From nowadays prospects it looks very well grounded as soon as in Leibniz’s manuscripts a modern scholar finds clue ideas of any research field which would tempt him to consider Leibniz as one of the founders of this particular discipline. We argue that this is possible only in retrospection and would significantly distort the essence of Leibniz’s epistemology. Our approach implies, in contrary, (...)
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  5. G. W. Leibniz and Scientific Societies.Markku Roinila - 2009 - Journal of Technology Management 46 (1-2):165-179.
    The famous philosopher Leibniz (1646-1716) was also active in the (cultural) politics of his time. His interest in forming scientific societies never waned and his efforts led to the founding of the Berlin Academy of Sciences. He also played a part in the founding of the Dresden Academy of Science and the St. Petersburg Academy of Science. Though Leibniz's models for the scientific society were the Royal Society and the Royal Science Academy of France, his pansophistic vision of (...)
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  6. Knowledge and Suffering in Early Modern Philosophy: G.W. Leibniz and Anne Conway.Christia Mercer - 2012 - In Sabrina Ebbersmeyer (ed.), Emotional Minds. De Gruyter. pp. 179.
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  7. Tercentenary Essays on the Philosophy & Science of G.W. Leibniz.L. Strickland, E. Vynckier & J. Weckend - 2017 - Palgrave-Macmillan.
    This book presents new research into key areas of the work of German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716). Reflecting various aspects of Leibniz's thought, this book offers a collection of original research arranged into four separate themes: Science, Metaphysics, Epistemology, and Religion and Theology. With in-depth articles by experts such as Maria Rosa Antognazza, Nicholas Jolley, Agustín Echavarría, Richard Arthur and Paul Lodge, this book is an invaluable resource not only for readers just beginning to discover (...)
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  8.  97
    John Locke ja G. W. Leibniz heikkotahtoisuudesta.Markku Roinila - 1998 - Ajatus 55:37-56.
    This paper discusses the topic of weakenss of the will or akrasia in Leibniz, especially in the context of Nouveaux essais sur l'entendement humain. I argue that Leibniz can be seen as supporting both the weak and the strong forms of akrasia in book II of the work.
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  9. The “Death” of Monads: G. W. Leibniz on Death and Anti-Death.Roinila Markku - 2016 - In Charles Tandy (ed.), Death and Anti Death, vol. 14: Four Decades after Michael Polanyi, Three Centuries after G. W. Leibniz. Ann Arbor: RIA University Press. pp. 243-266.
    According to Leibniz, there is no death in the sense that the human being or animal is destroyed completely. This is due to his metaphysical pluralism which would suffer if the number of substances decreased. While animals transform into other animals after “death”, human beings are rewarded or punished of their behavior in this life. This paper presents a comprehensive account of how Leibniz thought the “death” to take place and discusses his often unclear views on the life (...)
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  10. Universaalineron palkinto: G. W. Leibniz.Markku Roinila - 2004 - In Timo Kaitaro & Markku Roinila (eds.), Filosofin kuolema. Summa.
    Kertomus Leibnizin kuolemasta / An account of the death of Leibniz.
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  11. “The Horizon of Everything Human …”.G. W. Leibniz & David Forman - manuscript
    An English translation of Leibniz's fragment "Horizon rerum humanarum... " in which he announces a plan to demonstrate "that the number of truths or falsehoods enunciable by humans as they are now is limited; and also that if the present condition of humanity persisted long enough, it would happen that the greatest part of what they would communicate in words, whether by talking or writing, would have to coincide with what others have already communicated in the past; and moreover (...)
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  12. Leibniz on Hope.Markku Roinila - 2012 - In Sabrina Ebbersmeyer (ed.), Emotional Minds. De Gruyter. pp. 161.
    G. W. Leibniz famously proclaimed that this is the best of all possible worlds. One of the properties of the best world is its increasing perfection. He gave a prominent role in his discussion of emotions to hope which is related to intellectual activity such as curiosity and courage which again is essential for the practice of science and promoting the common good. Leibniz regarded hope as a process where minute perceptions in the mind, that is, unconscious promises (...)
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  13. Leibniz on Rational Decision-Making.Markku Roinila - 2007 - Dissertation, University of Helsinki
    In this study I discuss G. W. Leibniz's (1646-1716) views on rational decision-making from the standpoint of both God and man. The Divine decision takes place within creation, as God freely chooses the best from an infinite number of possible worlds. While God's choice is based on absolutely certain knowledge, human decisions on practical matters are mostly based on uncertain knowledge. However, in many respects they could be regarded as analogous in more complicated situations. In addition to giving an (...)
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  14. Transparency of Mind: The Contributions of Descartes, Leibniz, and Berkeley to the Genesis of the Modern Subject.Gary Hatfield - 2011 - In Hubertus Busche (ed.), Departure for Modern Europe: A Handbook of Early Modern Philosophy (1400-1700). Felix Meiner Verlag. pp. 361–375.
    The chapter focuses on attributions of the transparency of thought to early modern figures, most notably Descartes. Many recent philosophers assume that Descartes believed the mind to be “transparent”: since all mental states are conscious, we are therefore aware of them all, and indeed incorrigibly know them all. Descartes, and Berkeley too, do make statements that seem to endorse both aspects of the transparency theses (awareness of all mental states; incorrigibility). However, they also make systematic theoretical statements that directly countenance (...)
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  15. Iter Italicum and Leibniz/Giordano Correspondence.Francesco Tampoia - manuscript
    Letters exchanged by scientists are a crucial source by which to trace the process that accompanies their scientific evolution. In this paper -accomplished through a historical approach- I aim to throw new light on Leibniz's continuing interest in classical geometry and to stress the significance of his correspondence with the Italian mathematician Vitale Giordano.
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  16. Leibniz, Bayle and the Controversy on Sudden Change.Markku Roinila - 2016 - In Giovanni Scarafile & Leah Gruenpeter Gold (eds.), Paradoxes of Conflict. Springer. pp. 29-40.
    will give an overview of the fascinating communication between G. W. Leibniz and Pierre Bayle on pre-established harmony and sudden change in the soul which started from Bayle’s footnote H to the article “Rorarius” in his Dictionnaire historique et critique (1697) and ended in 1706 with Bayle’s death. I will compare the views presented in the communication to Leibniz’s reflections on the soul in his partly concurrent Nouveaux essais sur l’entendement humain (1704) and argue that many topics in (...)
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  17. Leibniz ja Eythyfronin dilemma.Markku Roinila - 2010 - In Kristian Klockars, Ilkka Niiniluoto & Kristina Rolin (eds.), Oikeus. University of Helsinki.
    Julkaisematta jääneessä muistiossaan Mietteitä oikeuden yleiskäsitteestä (1702-1703?) G. W. Leibniz muotoilee uudelleen Platonin Euthyfron-dialogissa esitetyn kuuluisan kysymyksen. Hän kirjoittaa: ”Myönnetään, että kaikki mitä Jumala tahtoo, on hyvää ja oikein. Sen sijaan kysytään, onko se hyvää ja oikein siksi että Jumala niin tahtoo, vai tahtooko Jumala sitä koska se on hyvää ja oikein. Eli kysytään, onko hyvyys tai oikeus jotakin mielivaltaista, vai koostuvatko ne asioiden luonnetta koskevista välttämättömistä ja ikuisista totuuksista, kuten luvut ja suhteet.” Universaaleja, ikuisia totuuksia puolustava filosofi ei (...)
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  18. Leibniz and Millenarianism.Lloyd Strickland & Daniel J. Cook - 2011 - In F. Beiderbeck & S. Waldhoff (eds.), Pluralität der Perspektiven und Einheit der Wahrheit im Werk von G. W. Leibniz. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 77-90.
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  19. Philosophy and Science in Leibniz.Maria Rosa Antognazza - 2016 - In L. Strickland, E. Vynckier & J. Weckend (eds.), Tercentenary Essays on the Philosophy & Science of G.W. Leibniz. Palgrave-Macmillan. pp. 19-46.
    This paper explores the question of Leibniz’s contribution to the rise of modern ‘science’. To be sure, it is now generally agreed that the modern category of ‘science’ did not exist in the early modern period. At the same time, this period witnessed a very important stage in the process from which modern science eventually emerged. My discussion will be aimed at uncovering the new enterprise, and the new distinctions which were taking shape in the early modern period under (...)
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  20. “Emancipating Forms Of Death With Polanyi And Leibniz”.Erik Sherman Roraback - 2016 - In Charles Tandy (ed.), Death and Anti Death, vol. 14: Four Decades after Michael Polanyi, Three Centuries after G. W. Leibniz. Ann Arbor, MI, USA: pp. 267–94.
    This chapter demonstrates that G.W. Leibniz and Michal Polanyi’s creative work in multiple fields of attention may serve a twenty first century in need of scholars willing to put daring and speculative imaginative inter–disciplinary risks in play. Such a cultural development would activate a general and cross–cultural sensibility that may salvage knowledge work, which is often predicated on property and power, for instead intellectual work that would serve the production of multiple truths that may enliven the world and inspire (...)
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  21. Leibniz and Probability in the Moral Domain.Chris Meyns - 2016 - In Tercentenary Essays on the Philosophy & Science of G.W. Leibniz. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 229-253.
    Leibniz’s account of probability has come into better focus over the past decades. However, less attention has been paid to a certain domain of application of that account, that is, the application of it to the moral or ethical domain—the sphere of action, choice and practice. This is significant, as Leibniz had some things to say about applying probability theory to the moral domain, and thought the matter quite relevant. Leibniz’s work in this area is conducted at (...)
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  22. Deleuze em Diálogo com Frémont: tentativas de ler leibniz.Gonzalo Montenegro - 2016 - Deleuze Em Diálogo Com Frémont Artigos / Articles Trans/Form/Ação, Marília (n. 2, Abr./Jun., 2016):p. 147-174.
    Gilles Deleuze’s research during the 1980s focused on the 17th century German thinker G. W. Leibniz. In 1988, Deleuze published Le Pli, which forms part of a series of works on modern philosophy. This book displays Deleuze’s attention to the interpretations of contemporary commentators on modern philosophy, in this case, on Leibniz. In this context, there occurred a brief and important dialogue between Deleuze and Christiane Frémont, the French commentator and translator of Leibniz, with regard to their (...)
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  23. From Logical Calculus to Logical Formality—What Kant Did with Euler’s Circles.Huaping Lu-Adler - 2017 - In Corey W. Dyck & Falk Wunderlich (eds.), Kant and His German Contemporaries : Volume 1, Logic, Mind, Epistemology, Science and Ethics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 35-55.
    John Venn has the “uneasy suspicion” that the stagnation in mathematical logic between J. H. Lambert and George Boole was due to Kant’s “disastrous effect on logical method,” namely the “strictest preservation [of logic] from mathematical encroachment.” Kant’s actual position is more nuanced, however. In this chapter, I tease out the nuances by examining his use of Leonhard Euler’s circles and comparing it with Euler’s own use. I do so in light of the developments in logical calculus from G. W. (...)
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  24. Theory and Praxis in Leibniz’s Theological Thought.Maria Rosa Antognazza - forthcoming - In Wenchao Li & Hartmut Rudolph (eds.), G. W. Leibniz im Lichte der Theologien [Leibniz in the Light of Theology]. Steiner.
    This paper re-assesses the place of theology in Leibniz’s thought focusing on the relationship between theory and praxis. It takes as its point of departure a general conclusion established in previous work, namely that Leibniz’s key formulations of his overarching plan for the reform and advancement of all the sciences, are devoted to a set of objectives which is both shaped by broadly theological concerns and ultimately practical. Against this backdrop, the discussion will then turn to an exploration (...)
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  25. Early Modern Empiricism.Silvia Manzo & Sofía Calvente - 2020 - Encyclopedia of Early Modern Philosophy and the Sciences.
    Broadly speaking, “empiricism” is a label that usually denotes an epistemological view that emphasizes the role that experience plays in forming concepts and acquiring and justifying knowledge. In contemporary philosophy, there are some authors who call themselves as empiricists, although there are differences in the way they define what experience consists in, how it is related to theory, and the role experience plays in discovering and justifying knowledge, etc. (e.g., Ayer 1936; Van Fraassen 2002). In contrast, in the early modern (...)
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  26.  59
    Moral & Intellectual Life of the West.Hermann G. W. Burchard - 2021 - Philosophy Study 11 (2).
    From the earliest times, American ethics, the rules for the moral \& intellectual life of the West, used to be founded upon the two principles of self-reliance and good neighborliness. Here we consider the underlying functions of neural brain circuits, organic structures that have evolved adaptively by Darwinian rules subject to selection pressure. In the left brain resides our self-reliant private Ego, making plans, launching initiatives. Your public Ego dwells in the right brain, looking around, meeting with your friendly neighbor. (...)
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  27.  28
    Science Meets Philosophy: Metaphysical Gap & Bilateral Brain.Hermann G. W. Burchard - 2020 - Philosophy Study 10 (10):599-614.
    The essay brings a summation of human efforts seeking to understand our existence. Plato and Kant & cognitive science complete reduction of philosophy to a neural mechanism, evolved along elementary Darwinian principles. Plato in his famous Cave Allegory explains that between reality and our experience of it there exists a great chasm, a metaphysical gap, fully confirmed through particle-wave duality of quantum physics. Kant found that we have two kinds of perception, two senses: By the spatial outer sense we perceive (...)
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  28. Philosophy and Science, the Darwinian-Evolved Computational Brain, a Non-Recursive Super-Turing Machine & Our Inner-World-Producing Organ.Hermann G. W. Burchard - 2016 - Open Journal of Philosophy 6 (1):13-28.
    Recent advances in neuroscience lead to a wider realm for philosophy to include the science of the Darwinian-evolved computational brain, our inner world producing organ, a non-recursive super- Turing machine combining 100B synapsing-neuron DNA-computers based on the genetic code. The whole system is a logos machine offering a world map for global context, essential for our intentional grasp of opportunities. We start from the observable contrast between the chaotic universe vs. our orderly inner world, the noumenal cosmos. So far, philosophy (...)
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  29. Emilie du Chatelet's Metaphysics of Substance.Marius Stan - 2018 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 56 (3):477-496.
    much early modern metaphysics grew with an eye to the new science of its time, but few figures took it as seriously as Emilie du Châtelet. Happily, her oeuvre is now attracting close, renewed attention, and so the time is ripe for looking into her metaphysical foundation for empirical theory. Accordingly, I move here to do just that. I establish two conclusions. First, du Châtelet's basic metaphysics is a robust realism. Idealist strands, while they exist, are confined to non-basic regimes. (...)
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  30. The Cognitive Gap, Neural Darwinism & Linguistic Dualism —Russell, Husserl, Heidegger & Quine.Hermann G. W. Burchard - 2014 - Open Journal of Philosophy 4 (3):244-264.
    Guided by key insights of the four great philosophers mentioned in the title, here, in review of and expanding on our earlier work (Burchard, 2005, 2011), we present an exposition of the role played by language, & in the broader sense, λογοζ, the Logos, in how the CNS, the brain, is running the human being. Evolution by neural Darwinism has been forcing the linguistic nature of mind, enabling it to overcome & exploit the cognitive gap between an animal and its (...)
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  31.  89
    Meteorite Impact Origin of Yellowstone Hotspot.Hermann G. W. Burchard - 2016 - Open Journal of Philosophy 6 (4):412-419.
    Origin of the Yellowstone hotspot & Columbia River Basalts has remained uncertain until now. Here, we present evidence of meteorite impact origin. The hotspot is shallow, only 200 km deep, invalidating a theory of mantle plume origin. The hotspot track runs from the Yellowstone National Park in NW Wyoming to the volcanic Modoc Plateau in NE California. We present evidence of apparent remnants of an impact crater existing in the Modoc, a large multi-ring structure at least 160 km diameter. Much (...)
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  32. Del memorable error de Descartes: Crítica leibniciana a la mecánica cartesiana.Esteban J. Beltrán Ulate - 2015 - Estudios, Universidad de Costa Rica 31 (II):1-12.
    El presente artículo pretende evidenciar de manera condensada la superación de las tesis cartesianas por parte de G.W. Leibniz. Con el objetivo de brindar un panorama, se presenta el origen de la tensión Leibniz-Descartes respecto a la mecánica, mismo que tiene su fundamento en la contraposición ocasionalismo – armonía pre-establecida. Para lograr éste cometido, se brinda un acercamiento a la concepción leibniciana respecto al memorable error de Descartes, posteriormente se procede a la refutación del movimiento mecánico perpetuo, conforme (...)
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  33. W.V. Quine, Immanuel Kant Lectures, translated and introduced by H.G. Callaway.H. G. Callaway & W. V. Quine (eds.) - 2003 - Frommann-Holzboog.
    This book is a translation of W.V. Quine's Kant Lectures, given as a series at Stanford University in 1980. It provide a short and useful summary of Quine's philosophy. There are four lectures altogether: I. Prolegomena: Mind and its Place in Nature; II. Endolegomena: From Ostension to Quantification; III. Endolegomena loipa: The forked animal; and IV. Epilegomena: What's It all About? The Kant Lectures have been published to date only in Italian and German translation. The present book is filled out (...)
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  34. Introduction to G.W.F. Hegel Key Concepts.Michael Baur - 2014 - In G. W. F. Hegel: Key Concepts. New York: pp. 1-13.
    The thought of G. W. F. Hegel (1770 -1831) has had a deep and lasting influence on a wide range of philosophical, political, religious, aesthetic, cultural and scientific movements. But, despite the far-reaching importance of Hegel's thought, there is often a great deal of confusion about what he actually said or believed. G. W. F. Hegel: Key Concepts provides an accessible introduction to both Hegel's thought and Hegel-inspired philosophy in general, demonstrating how his concepts were understood, adopted and critically transformed (...)
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  35. Kant and the Problem of Optimism: The Origin of the Debate.Aleksey N. Krouglov - 2018 - Kantian Journal 37 (1):9-24.
    Kant scholars have rarely addressed the notion of optimism as it was interpreted by the Königsbergian philosopher in the mid-18th century. The notion originates from Leibniz’s Theodi­cy and from debates over whether the actual world is the best of all possible worlds. The first of a two-part series, this article studies the historical context in which appeared Kant’s 1759 lecture advertisement leaflet entitled An Attempt at Some Reflections on Optimism. The study describes the requirements of the 1755 Berlin Academy (...)
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  36. Biology and Theology in Malebranche's Theory of Organic Generation.Karen Detlefsen - 2014 - In Ohad Nachtomy & Justin E. H. Smith (eds.), The Life Sciences in Early Modern Philosophy. Oxford University Press. pp. 137-156.
    This paper has two parts: In the first part, I give a general survey of the various reasons 17th and 18th century life scientists and metaphysicians endorsed the theory of pre-existence according to which God created all living beings at the creation of the universe, and no living beings are ever naturally generated anew. These reasons generally fall into three categories. The first category is theological. For example, many had the desire to account for how all humans are stained by (...)
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  37.  63
    Hegel: The Letters.Clark Butler and Christiane Seiler & Clark Butler G. W. F. Hegel - 1984 - Indiana University Press.
    740 page life in letters, including all Hegel's available letters at time of publication by Indiana University Press in 1984 tied together by a running commentary by Clark Butler. The volume is in a searchable PDF format. Publication was supported by a Major Grant by the National Endowment of the Humanities (NEH).
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  38.  99
    The Asperian Design.Thomas G. W. Crowther - 2017 - Spirituality Studies 3 (1):10-19.
    Reality is two-fold, composed of the lighted world as revealed in Genesis, and the darker primordiality which preceded it. The illuminated represents that which the human mind can comprehend, manipulate and re-order to its will: a “designed” and mechanical universe of parts. But behind it, in the backspace of reality, remains the darkness. A formless state of pre-creation, the darkness exists as an endless series of intertwining “signatures” – single possibilities waiting to be created in the illuminated forefront of reality. (...)
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  39.  87
    The Field.Thomas G. W. Crowther - 2018 - New Dawn Magazine.
    Life is a battlefield onto which we are thrown at birth, with only fate and fortune settling upon where we land. Wherever we land, whether it's on the front lines or surrounded by a network of defenses, we are all asking the same question: why are we here? The problem with this question, however, is that we tend to answer it from our own relative positions, and so we all arrive at different conclusions. The many answers we've created have filled (...)
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  40. Isaac Newton (1642–1727).Zvi Biener - 2017 - Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Isaac Newton is best known as a mathematician and physicist. He invented the calculus, discovered universal gravitation and made significant advances in theoretical and experimental optics. His master-work on gravitation, the Principia, is often hailed as the crowning achievement of the scientific revolution. His significance for philosophers, however, extends beyond the philosophical implications of his scientific discoveries. Newton was an able and subtle philosopher, working at a time when science was not yet recognized as an activity distinct from philosophy. He (...)
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  41. Before and Beyond Leibniz: Tschirnhaus and Wolff on Experience and Method.Corey W. Dyck - manuscript
    In this chapter, I consider the largely overlooked influence of E. W. von Tschirnhaus' treatise on method, the Medicina mentis, on Wolff's early philosophical project (in both its conception and execution). As I argue, part of Tschirnhaus' importance for Wolff lies in the use he makes of principles gained from experience as a foundation for the scientific enterprise in the context of his broader philosophical rationalism. I will show that this lesson from Tschirnhaus runs through Wolff's earliest philosophical discussions, and (...)
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  42. John Locke's Contemporaries' Reaction Against the Theory of Substratum in Metaphysics or Modernity? Simon Baumgartner, Thimo Heisenberg and Sebastian Krebs (Eds.).Mihretu P. Guta - 2013 - In Thimo Heisenberg and Sebastian Krebs Simon Baumgartner (ed.), Anthology. Bamberg University Press.. pp. 9-28.
    The goal of this paper is to critically examine the objections of John Locke’s contemporaries against the theory of substance or substratum. Locke argues in Essay that substratum is the bearer of the properties of a particular substance. Locke also claims that we have no knowledge of substratum. But Locke’s claim about our ignorance as to what substratum is, is contentious. That is, if we don’t know what substratum is, then what is the point of proposing it as a bearer (...)
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  43.  21
    Georg Cantor’s Ordinals, Absolute Infinity & Transparent Proof of the Well-Ordering Theorem.Hermann G. W. Burchard - 2019 - Philosophy Study 9 (8).
    Georg Cantor's absolute infinity, the paradoxical Burali-Forti class Ω of all ordinals, is a monstrous non-entity for which being called a "class" is an undeserved dignity. This must be the ultimate vexation for mathematical philosophers who hold on to some residual sense of realism in set theory. By careful use of Ω, we can rescue Georg Cantor's 1899 "proof" sketch of the Well-Ordering Theorem––being generous, considering his declining health. We take the contrapositive of Cantor's suggestion and add Zermelo's choice function. (...)
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  44.  14
    Heidegger’s Metaphysics, a Theory of Human Perception: Neuroscience Anticipated, Thesis of Violent Man, Doctrine of the Logos.Hermann G. W. Burchard - 2020 - Philosophy Study 10 (11).
    In this essay, our goal is to discover science in Martin Heidegger's Introduction to Metaphysics, lecture notes for his 1935 summer semester course, because, after all, his subject is metaphysica generalis, or ontology, and this could be construed as a theory of the human brain. Here, by means of verbatim quotes from his text, we attempt to show that indeed these lectures can be viewed as suggestion for an objective scientific theory of human perception, the human capacity for deciphering phenomena, (...)
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  45. Rationalist Foundations and the Science of Force.Marius Stan - forthcoming - In Brandon Look & Frederick Beiser (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of German Eighteenth-Century Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
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  46. Questioning the Question.Stephen Maitzen - 2013 - In Tyron Goldschmidt (ed.), The Puzzle of Existence: Why is There Something Rather than Nothing? Routledge. pp. 252-271.
    Why is there something rather than nothing? Apparently many people regard that question as a challenge to naturalism because they think it’s too fundamental or too sweeping for natural science to answer, even in principle. I argue, on the contrary, that the question has a simple and adequate naturalistic answer: ‘Because there are penguins.’ I then diagnose various confusions underlying the suspicion that the question can’t have such an answer and, more generally, that the question, or else some variant of (...)
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  47. O progresso na Filosofia da História de G. W. F. Hegel.Gabriel Rodrigues da Silva - 2017 - Filogenese 10:53-64.
    This article proposes to present, in general, the thought of the German philosopher G. W. F. Hegel about history. Using mainly the work Philosophy of History, I seek first to analyze and to explain the different modes of historical approaches elaborated by Hegel, which are: the original history, the reflective history and its subdivisions and, finally, the philosophical history. After that, I center my studies on the concept of progress or, more precisely, historical progress. According to Hegel, philosophical history appears (...)
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  48. Deleuze on Leibniz : Difference, Continuity, and the Calculus.Daniel W. Smith - 2005 - In Current Continental Theory and Modern Philosophy. Northwestern University Press.
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  49. Elämän jatkumo Leibnizilla.Markku Roinila - 2005 - In Jussi Haukioja & Juha Räikkä (eds.), Elämän merkitys: Filosofisia kirjoituksia elämästä. Unipress.
    Leeuwenhoekin kokeilut mikroskoopilla 1600-luvun lopulla olivat G. W. Leibnizille suuri innoituksen lähde. Monadologia-teoksessaan Leibniz hehkutti keksinnön merkitystä ja antoi ymmärtää, että sillä löydetyt pikkuruiset eliöt todistivat hänen metafyysisen pluralisminsa oikeaksi. Hänen mukaansa "huomataan, että pienimmässäkin osasessa ainetta on kokonainen elävien olioiden, eläinten, entelekhioiden ja sielujen maailma." Näin Leibnizin ajatus elämän jatkumosta sai uutta pontta. -/- Keksinnön vaikutus näkyy myös Leibnizin teoksessa Uusia esseitä inhimillisestä ymmärryksestä, jossa hän esittelee pienet perseptiot, joita voidaan pitää tietoteoreettisena vastineena pieneliöille. -/- Tarkastelen esitelmässäni Leibnizin (...)
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  50. Hagia Sophia.Wolf Leslau, C. F. Beckingham & G. W. B. Huntingford - manuscript
    Three separate churches erected in Constantinople were all dedicated to the wisdom of Christ and erected on the same site one after the other. These churches were built between 360 and 537 AD by three different emperors: Constantius II, Theodosius the Younger, and Justinian I. The first two churches were consumed in flames after relatively short lives, but the final and greatest church still stands today, despite a history of extensive damage. This final edifice is the main focus of this (...)
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