Biomedical Ethics

Edited by L. Syd M Johnson (SUNY Upstate Medical University)
Assistant editor: Tyler John (Longview Philanthropy)
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History/traditions: Biomedical Ethics

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  1. Toward a Feminist Model for Women’s Healthcare: The Problem of False Consciousness and the Moral Status of Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery.Shadi Heidarifar - forthcoming - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics.
    Female Genital Cosmetic Surgery (FGCS) is an umbrella term referring to different procedures including labiaplasty (reducing the length of the labia minora), clitoral hood reduction (reducing excess folds of the clitoral hood), hymenoplasty (building the hymen), labia majora augmentation (reducing the labia majora), vaginoplasty (tightening the vagina), and G-spot amplification (increasing the size and sensitivity of the G-spot). This paper is concerned with “all-or-nothing” approaches to FGCS procedures in women’s healthcare, i.e., those that overemphasize either women’s autonomy so as to (...)
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  2. Reconsidering the utilitarian link between veganism and antinatalism.Joona Räsänen - forthcoming - Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics:1-3.
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  3. Loneliness in medicine and relational ethics: A phenomenology of the physician-patient relationship.John D. Han, Benjamin W. Frush & Jay R. Malone - 2024 - Clinical Ethics 19 (2):171-181.
    Loneliness in medicine is a serious problem not just for patients, for whom illness is intrinsically isolating, but also for physicians in the contemporary condition of medicine. We explore this problem by investigating the ideal physician-patient relationship, whose analogy with friendship has held enduring normative appeal. Drawing from Talbot Brewer and Nir Ben-Moshe, we argue that this appeal lies in a dynamic form of companionship incompatible with static models of friendship-like physician-patient relationships: a mutual refinement of embodied virtue that draws (...)
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  4. Caregiving and role conflict distress.Jordan MacKenzie - 2024 - Clinical Ethics 19 (2):136-142.
    When our nearest and dearest experience medical crises, we may need to step into caregiving roles. But in doing so, we may find that our new caregiving relationship is actually in tension with the loving relationship that motivated us towards care. What we owe and are entitled to as friends, spouses, and family members, can be different from what we owe and are entitled to as caregivers. For this reason, caregiving carries with it the risk of a type of moral (...)
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  5. A Rebuttal on Externalism.Hane Htut Maung - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    In a recent paper, I argued that an externalist understanding of mental disorder from the philosophy of psychiatry presents an ethical challenge to the practice of medical assistance in dying (MAiD) for psychiatric illness, because it highlights the ways in which the suffering associated with psychiatric illness is sustained by features of the external environment wherein the person is embedded, including social barriers and injustices. In a response to my paper, Harry Hudson argues that addressing social inequality lacks relevance to (...)
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  6. Bakim Verenlerin Bakimi: İhtimam Etigi Perspektifinden Bir İnceleme.Orhan Onder, Birsu Barın, Ali Emre Bodur, Berk Erdogan, Bensu Ozmen, Ceren Acun & Seyhan Hidiroglu - 2023 - Turkish Journal of Bioethics 10 (4):113-123.
    Amaç: Kanserle yaşayan bireylerin (KYB) bakımında, resmiyette görünür olmayan ve çoğunlukla herhangi bir profesyonel donanıma sahip olmayan, ama sürecin başından sonuna, hasta bireye eşlik eden bakım verenler kritik öneme sahiptir. Baş etmesi zor bir hastalık olan kanserle mücadele eden bireylerin bakımında, bakım verenler fiziksel, zihinsel ve sosyal birtakım zorluklarla karşılaşmaktadır. Bu araştırma, KYB’lere bakım veren, yakınlarının karşılaştıkları zorlukları gündeme getirmeyi ve ihtimam etiği perspektifinden, bakım verenlerin bakımına yönelik öneriler sunmayı amaçlamaktadır. Gereç ve Yöntem: Bu araştırma tanımlayıcı ve kesitsel olup araştırmanın (...)
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  7. The Social Epistemology of Clinical Placebos.Melissa Rees - 2024 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 49 (3):233-245.
    Many extant theories of placebo focus on their causal structure wherein placebo effects are those that originate from select features of the therapy (e.g., client expectations or “incidental” features like size and shape). Although such accounts can distinguish placebos from standard medical treatments, they cannot distinguish placebos from everyday occurrences, for example, when positive feedback improves our performance on a task. Providing a social-epistemological account of a treatment context can rule out such occurrences, and furthermore reveal a new way to (...)
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  8. Nature-Versus-Nurture Considered Harmful: Actionability as an Alternative Tool for Understanding the Exposome From an Ethical Perspective.Caspar W. Safarlou, Annelien L. Bredenoord, Roel Vermeulen & Karin R. Jongsma - 2024 - Bioethics 38 (4):356-366.
    Exposome research is put forward as a major tool for solving the nature-versus-nurture debate because the exposome is said to represent “the nature of nurture.” Against this influential idea, we argue that the adoption of the nature-versus-nurture debate into the exposome research program is a mistake that needs to be undone to allow for a proper bioethical assessment of exposome research. We first argue that this adoption is originally based on an equivocation between the traditional nature-versus-nurture debate and a debate (...)
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  9. Abolishing morality in biomedical ethics.Parker Crutchfield & Scott Scheall - 2024 - Bioethics 38 (4):316-325.
    In biomedical ethics, there is widespread acceptance of moral realism, the view that moral claims express a proposition and that at least some of these propositions are true. Biomedical ethics is also in the business of attributing moral obligations, such as “S should do X.” The problem, as we argue, is that against the background of moral realism, most of these attributions are erroneous or inaccurate. The typical obligation attribution issued by a biomedical ethicist fails to truly capture the person's (...)
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  10. The Overlooked Risk of Intimate Violation in Research: No Perianal Sampling Without Consent.Jasmine Gunkel - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (4):118-120.
    There are few moral principles less controversial than “don’t touch people’s private parts without consent.” Though the principle doesn’t make explicit that there are exceptions, there clearly are some. Parents must wipe their infants. If an unconscious patient is admitted to the emergency room with a profusely bleeding laceration on their genitals, a doctor must give them stitches. The researchers who proposed the study in question, which would look for a connection between burn patients’ microbiomes and their clinical outcomes, presumably (...)
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  11. Epistemic Authorities and Skilled Agents: A Pluralist Account of Moral Expertise.Federico Bina, Sofia Bonicalzi & Michel Croce - forthcoming - Topoi:1-13.
    This paper explores the concept of moral expertise in the contemporary philosophical debate, with a focus on three accounts discussed across moral epistemology, bioethics, and virtue ethics: an epistemic authority account, a skilled agent account, and a hybrid model sharing key features of the two. It is argued that there are no convincing reasons to defend a monistic approach that reduces moral expertise to only one of these models. A pluralist view is outlined in the attempt to reorient the discussion (...)
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  12. Honesty in Human Subject Research.Sungwoo Um - forthcoming - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry.
    In this paper, I discuss the ethical issues related to deception in human subject research in terms of honesty. First, I introduce the background and suggest the conception of honesty that understands it as involving respect for the right not to be deceived (RND). Next, I examine several ways to address the ethical issues of deceptive elements in the human subject research and show why they fail to adequately meet the demand of honesty. I focus on how to make an (...)
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  13. May Artificial Intelligence take health and sustainability on a honeymoon? Towards green technologies for multidimensional health and environmental justice.Cristian Moyano-Fernández, Jon Rueda, Janet Delgado & Txetxu Ausín - 2024 - Global Bioethics 35 (1).
    The application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in healthcare and epidemiology undoubtedly has many benefits for the population. However, due to its environmental impact, the use of AI can produce social inequalities and long-term environmental damages that may not be thoroughly contemplated. In this paper, we propose to consider the impacts of AI applications in medical care from the One Health paradigm and long-term global health. From health and environmental justice, rather than settling for a short and fleeting green honeymoon between (...)
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  14. What Does It Mean to Be Human Today?Julia Alessandra Harzheim - forthcoming - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics.
    With the progress of artificial intelligence, the digitalization of the lifeworld, and the reduction of the mind to neuronal processes, the human being appears more and more as a product of data and algorithms. Thus, we conceive ourselves “in the image of our machines,” and conversely, we elevate our machines and our brains to new subjects. At the same time, demands for an enhancement of human nature culminate in transhumanist visions of taking human evolution to a new stage. Against this (...)
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  15. Clinical equipoise: Why still the gold standard for randomized clinical trials?Charlemagne Asonganyi Folefac & Hugh Desmond - 2024 - Clinical Ethics 19 (1):1-11.
    The principle of clinical equipoise has been variously characterized by ethicists and clinicians as fundamentally flawed, a myth, and even a moral balm. Yet, the principle continues to be treated as the de facto gold standard for conducting randomized control trials in an ethical manner. Why do we hold on to clinical equipoise, despite its shortcomings being widely known and well-advertised? This paper reviews the most important arguments criticizing clinical equipoise as well as what the most prominent proposed alternatives are. (...)
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  16. Queering the genome: ethical challenges of epigenome editing in same-sex reproduction.Adrian Villalba - forthcoming - Journal of Medical Ethics 26.
    In this article, I explore the ethical dimensions of same-sex reproduction achieved through epigenome editing—an innovative and transformative technique. For the first time, I analyse the potential normativity of this disruptive approach for reproductive purposes, focusing on its implications for lesbian couples seeking genetically related offspring. Epigenome editing offers a compelling solution to the complex ethical challenges posed by traditional gene editing, as it sidesteps genome modifications and potential long-term genetic consequences. The focus of this article is to systematically analyse (...)
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  17. Unhealthy Environments Are a Problem of Structural Injustice.Gah-Kai Leung - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (3):53-55.
    Ray and Cooper (2024) argue that bioethicists should take environmental justice seriously as a matter of health justice; as part of this project, they defend a legal right to a healthy environment....
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  18. ICoME and the legitimacy of professional self-regulation.Afsheen Mansoori & Eli Garrett Schantz - 2024 - Journal of Medical Ethics 50 (3):173-174.
    After an intensive 4-year process, the World Medical Association (WMA) has revised its International Code of Medical Ethics (ICoME). In their report outlining this process, Parsa-Parsi et al not only describe how the WMA sought to ‘cultivat[e] international agreement’ on a ‘global medical ethos’, but also outline the philosophical framework of the ICoME: how the WMA, as the ‘global representation of the medical profession’, created and revised the ICoME through the process of international professional self-regulation.1 However, there is a significant (...)
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  19. A Scalar Approach to Vaccination Ethics.Steven R. Kraaijeveld, Rachel Gur-Arie & Jamrozik Euzebiusz - 2023 - The Journal of Ethics 28 (1):145-169.
    Should people get vaccinated for the sake of others? What could ground—and limit—the normative claim that people ought to do so? In this paper, we propose a reasons-based consequentialist account of vaccination for the benefit of others. We outline eight harm-based and probabilistic factors that, we argue, give people moral reasons to get vaccinated. Instead of understanding other-directed vaccination in terms of binary moral duties (i.e., where people either have or do not have a moral duty to get vaccinated), we (...)
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  20. Providing ethics advice in a pandemic, in theory and in practice: A taxonomy of ethics advice.James Wilson, Jack Hume, Cian O'Donovan & Melanie Smallman - 2024 - Bioethics 38 (3):213-222.
    The pandemic significantly raised the stakes for the translation of bioethics insights into policy. The novelty, range and sheer quantity of the ethical problems that needed to be addressed urgently within public policy were unprecedented and required high‐bandwidth two‐way transfer of insights between academic bioethics and policy. Countries such as the United Kingdom, which do not have a National Ethics Committee, faced particular challenges in how to facilitate this. This paper takes as a case study the brief career of the (...)
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  21. Can Knowledge Itself Justify Harmful Research?Jeff Sebo & David Degrazia - 2020 - Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 29 (2):302-307.
    In our paper, we argue for three necessary conditions for morally permissible animal research: (1) an assertion (or expectation) of sufficient net benefit, (2) a worthwhile-life condition, and (3) a no-unnecessary-harm/qualified-basic-needs condition. We argue that these conditions are necessary, without taking a position on whether they are jointly sufficient. In their excellent commentary on our paper, Matthias Eggel, Carolyn Neuhaus, and Herwig Grimm (hereafter, the authors) argue for a friendly amendment to one of our three conditions. In particular, they argue (...)
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  22. The First Smart Pill: Digital Revolution or Last Gasp?Anna K. Swartz & Phoebe Friesen - 2023 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 33 (3):277-319.
    ABSTRACT: Abilify MyCite was granted regulatory approval in 2017, becoming the world’s first “smart pill” that could digitally track whether patients had taken their medication. The new technology was introduced as one that had gained the support of patients and ethicists alike, and could contribute to solving the widespread and costly problem of patient nonadherence. Here, we offer an in-depth exploration of this narrative, through an examination of the origins and development of Abilify, the drug that would later become MyCite. (...)
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  23. Gender Affirming Hormone Treatment for Trans Adolescents: A Four Principles Analysis.Hane Htut Maung - 2024 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-19.
    Gender affirming hormone treatment is an important part of the care of trans adolescents which enables them to develop the secondary sexual characteristics congruent with their identified genders. There is an increasing amount of empirical evidence showing the benefits of gender affirming hormone treatment for psychological health and social well-being in this population. However, in several countries, access to gender affirming hormone treatment for trans adolescents has recently been severely restricted. While much of the opposition to gender affirming hormone treatment (...)
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  24. Prospects for Engineering Personhood.Max F. Kramer - 2024 - American Journal of Bioethics 24 (1):69-71.
    What is personhood? What do we want it to be? Blumenthal-Barby (2024) offers an answer to the first question: personhood is an unhelpful, harmful, and pernicious concept in the bioethical setting....
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  25. COVID-19 vaccine refusal as unfair free-riding.Joshua Kelsall - 2024 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy (1):1-13.
    Contributions to COVID-19 vaccination programmes promise valuable collective goods. They can support public and individual health by creating herd immunity and taking the pressure off overwhelmed public health services; support freedom of movement by enabling governments to remove restrictive lockdown policies; and improve economic and social well-being by allowing businesses, schools, and other essential public services to re-open. The vaccinated can contribute to the production of these goods. The unvaccinated, who benefit from, but who do not contribute to these goods (...)
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  26. The ethics of expert communication.Hugh Desmond - 2023 - Bioethics 38 (1):33-43.
    Despite its public visibility and impact on policy, the activity of expert communication rarely receives more than a passing mention in codes of scientific integrity. This paper makes the case for an ethics of expert communication, introducing a framework where expert communication is represented as an intrinsically ethical activity of a deliberative agent. Ethical expert communication cannot be ensured by complying with various requirements, such as restricting communications to one's area of expertise or disclosing conflicts of interest. Expert communication involves (...)
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  27. First-person disavowals of digital phenotyping and epistemic injustice in psychiatry.Stephanie K. Slack & Linda Barclay - 2023 - Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 26 (4):605-614.
    Digital phenotyping will potentially enable earlier detection and prediction of mental illness by monitoring human interaction with and through digital devices. Notwithstanding its promises, it is certain that a person’s digital phenotype will at times be at odds with their first-person testimony of their psychological states. In this paper, we argue that there are features of digital phenotyping in the context of psychiatry which have the potential to exacerbate the tendency to dismiss patients’ testimony and treatment preferences, which can be (...)
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  28. La protección del derecho humano a la salud en la emergencia climática: La obligación de los Estados de adaptarse al cambio climático para garantizar el derecho humano a la salud de sus residentes.Romina Rekers - 2023 - Religacion Press.
    La emergencia climática impacta en el derecho humano a la salud, por lo que los Estados y la comunidad internacional deben tomar medidas concertadas y urgentes para enfrentar esta problemática. Este informe tiene como objetivo brindar herramientas desde un enfoque centrado en la relación entre el clima y la salud para abordar algunas de las preguntas sobre las obligaciones de los Estados incluidas en la Opinión Consultiva sobre Emergencia Climática y Derechos Humanos presentada por Colombia y Chile ante la Corte (...)
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  29. Ética en investigaciones con seres humanos vulnerables en el marco de la Bioética. ¿Conocimientos para quién?Cintia Rodríguez Garat - 2022 - Divulgatio. Perfiles Académicos de Posgrado 7 (19):99-116.
    En este ensayo nos proponemos realizar algunas consideraciones argumentativas breves sobre la ética en investigaciones con seres humanos vulnerables. Para ello, examinaremos el conocido caso de Tuskegee (Alabama), ocurrido entre los años 1932-1972, en el que 600 personas afroamericanas fueron inoculadas con sífilis sin su consentimiento. Luego, desde una postura crítica, abordaremos el caso desde tres perspectivas bioéticas. En primer lugar, lo analizaremos desde el plano jurídico-normativo, luego desde el principialismo formulado por Tom Beauchamp y James Childress, y finalmente, desde (...)
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  30. Abordajes teórico-normativos en torno a políticas sanitarias y a problemáticas vivenciadas por mujeres mapuce en la atención sanitaria.Cintia Rodríguez Garat - 2021 - Divulgatio. Perfiles Académicos de Posgrado 6 (16):1-29.
    En este artículo se plantean las bases del marco ético-normativo que intervienen en la atención sanitaria de las mujeres en general, y de las mujeres mapuce, en particular. Posteriormente, se realiza un abordaje de las mujeres indígenas analizando su situación concreta, a partir de considerar de manera crítica la confluencia intersectorial de distintos sistemas opresivos que articulan las relaciones de género, clase y etnia. Para ello, el planteo se centrará en el estudio de esta problemática desde la perspectiva feminista latinoamericana, (...)
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  31. Applying the ecosystem approach to global bioethics: building on the Leopold legacy.Antoine Boudreau LeBlanc & Bryn Williams-Jones - 2023 - Global Bioethics 34 (1):2280289.
    For Van Rensselaer Potter (1911–2001), Global Bio-Ethics is about building on the legacy of Aldo Leopold (1887–1948), one of the most notable forest managers of the twentieth century who brought to light the importance of pragmatism in the sciences and showed us a new way to proceed with environmental ethics. Following Richard Huxtable and Jonathan Ives's methodological 'Framework for Empirical Bioethics Research Projects' called 'Mapping, framing, shaping,' published in BMC Medicine Ethics (2019)), we propose operationalizing a framework for Global Bio-Ethics (...)
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  32. Putting “Epistemic Injustice” to Work in Bioethics: Beyond Nonmaleficence.Sigrid Wallaert & Seppe Segers - 2023 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 2023:1-4.
    We expand on Della Croce’s ambition to interpret “epistemic injustice” as a specification of non-maleficence in the use of the influential four-principle framework. This is an alluring line of thought for conceptual, moral, and heuristic reasons. Although it is commendable, Della Croce’s attempt remains tentative. So does our critique of it. Yet, we take on the challenge to critically address two interrelated points. First, we broaden the analysis to include deliberations about hermeneutical injustice. We argue that, if due consideration of (...)
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  33. Caring as the unacknowledged matrix of evidence-based nursing.Victoria Min-Yi Wang & Brian Baigrie - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics.
    In this article, we explicate evidence-based nursing (EBN), critically appraise its framework and respond to nurses’ concern that EBN sidelines the caring elements of nursing practice. We use resources from care ethics, especially Vrinda Dalmiya’s work that considers care as crucial for both epistemology and ethics, to show how EBN is compatible with, and indeed can be enhanced by, the caring aspects of nursing practice. We demonstrate that caring can act as a bridge between ‘external’ evidence and the other pillars (...)
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  34. Disability, Transition Costs, and the Things That Really Matter.Tommy Ness & Linda Barclay - 2023 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 48 (6):591-602.
    This article develops a detailed, empirically driven analysis of the nature of the transition costs incurred in becoming disabled. Our analysis of the complex nature of these costs supports the claim that it can be wrong to cause disability, even if disability is just one way of being different. We also argue that close attention to the nature of transition costs gives us reason to doubt that well-being, including transitory impacts on well-being, is the only thing that should determine the (...)
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  35. The New Hysteria: Borderline Personality Disorder and Epistemic Injustice.Natalie Dorfman & Joel Michael Reynolds - 2023 - International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 16 (2):162-181.
    The diagnostic category of borderline personality disorder (BPD) has come under increasing criticism in recent years. In this paper, we analyze the role and impact of epistemic injustice, specifically testimonial injustice, in relation to the diagnosis of BPD. We first offer a critical sociological and historical account, detailing and expanding a range of arguments that BPD is problematic nosologically. We then turn to explore the epistemic injustices that can result from a BPD diagnosis, showing how they can lead to experiences (...)
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  36. “Large Language Models” Do Much More than Just Language: Some Bioethical Implications of Multi-Modal AI.Joshua August Skorburg, Kristina L. Kupferschmidt & Graham W. Taylor - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (10):110-113.
    Cohen (2023) takes a fair and measured approach to the question of what ChatGPT means for bioethics. The hype cycles around AI often obscure the fact that ethicists have developed robust frameworks...
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  37. Publish with AUTOGEN or Perish? Some Pitfalls to Avoid in the Pursuit of Academic Enhancement via Personalized Large Language Models.Alexandre Erler - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (10):94-96.
    The potential of using personalized Large Language Models (LLMs) or “generative AI” (GenAI) to enhance productivity in academic research, as highlighted by Porsdam Mann and colleagues (Porsdam Mann...
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  38. Large Language Models and Biorisk.William D’Alessandro, Harry R. Lloyd & Nathaniel Sharadin - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (10):115-118.
    We discuss potential biorisks from large language models (LLMs). AI assistants based on LLMs such as ChatGPT have been shown to significantly reduce barriers to entry for actors wishing to synthesize dangerous, potentially novel pathogens and chemical weapons. The harms from deploying such bioagents could be further magnified by AI-assisted misinformation. We endorse several policy responses to these dangers, including prerelease evaluations of biomedical AIs by subject-matter experts, enhanced surveillance and lab screening procedures, restrictions on AI training data, and access (...)
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  39. The Relational Care Framework: Promoting Continuity or Maintenance of Selfhood in Person-Centered Care.Matthew Tieu & Steve Matthews - 2023 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy (1):85-101.
    We argue that contemporary conceptualizations of “persons” have failed to achieve the moral goals of “person-centred care” (PCC, a model of dementia care developed by Tom Kitwood) and that they are detrimental to those receiving care, their families, and practitioners of care. We draw a distinction between personhood and selfhood, pointing out that continuity or maintenance of the latter is what is really at stake in dementia care. We then demonstrate how our conceptualization, which is one that privileges the lived (...)
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  40. Supported Decision-Making: Non-Domination Rather than Mental Prosthesis.Allison M. McCarthy & Dana Howard - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience 14 (3):227-237.
    Recently, bioethicists and the UNCRPD have advocated for supported medical decision-making on behalf of patients with intellectual disabilities. But what does supported decision-making really entail? One compelling framework is Anita Silvers and Leslie Francis’ mental prosthesis account, which envisions supported decision-making as a process in which trustees act as mere appendages for the patient’s will; the trustee provides the cognitive tools the patient requires to realize her conception of her own good. We argue that supported decision-making would be better understood (...)
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  41. Recovery without normalisation: It's not necessary to be normal, not even in psychiatry.Zsuzsanna Chappell & Sofia M. I. Jeppsson - 2023 - Clinical Ethics 18 (3):298-305.
    In this paper, we argue that there are reasons to believe that an implicit bias for normalcy influences what are considered medically necessary treatments in psychiatry. First, we outline two prima facie reasons to suspect that this is the case. A bias for ‘the normal’ is already documented in disability studies; it is reasonable to suspect that it affects psychiatry too, since psychiatric patients, like disabled people, are often perceived as ‘weird’ by others. Secondly, psychiatry's explicitly endorsed values of well-being (...)
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  42. Transhumanisms: A Review of Transhumanist Schools of Thought.Piero Gayozzo - 2021 - New Literaria an International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Humanities 2 (1):120-131.
    Transhumanism is a philosophical system that proposes the use of advanced technologies directly in the human body to modify and improve its biological condition. That is the core idea of transhumanism and it can be adopted by various ideological systems in different ways. It will depend on their ethical approach and what they define as “improvement”. In this article we will quickly review the difference between transhumanist philosophy, Transhumanism and Transhumanisms.
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  43. Why We Explain - Review of Anya Plutynski, 2018. Explaining Cancer: Finding Order in Disorder, Oxford University Press. [REVIEW]Dien Ho - 2023 - Cambridge Quarter of Healthcare Ethics 33 (First view):280-284.
    Since its initial publication in 2018, Professor Anya Plutynski’s Explaining Cancer: Finding Order in Disorder has garnered a great deal of accolades.1 In 2021, The London School of Economics and Political Science conferred Professor Plutynski the Lakatos Award, recognizing the book’s significant contribution to the philosophy of science. On the heels of its recent reissuing as a paperback, it is an ideal time to revisit this remarkable work.
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  44. AI-Based Medical Solutions Can Threaten Physicians’ Ethical Obligations Only If Allowed to Do So.Benjamin Gregg - 2023 - American Journal of Bioethics 23 (9):84-86.
    Mildred Cho and Nicole Martinez-Martin (2023) distinguish between two of the ways in which humans can be represented in medical contexts. One is technical: a digital model of aspects of a person’s...
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  45. Mutual Aid as Effective Altruism.Ricky Mouser - 2023 - Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 33 (2):201-226.
    Effective altruism has a strategy problem. Overreliance on a strategy of donating to the most effective charities keeps us on the firefighter's treadmill, continually pursuing the next-highest quantifiable marginal gain. But on its own, this is politically shortsighted. Without any long-term framework within which these individual rescues fit together to bring about the greatest overall impact, we are almost certainly leaving a lot of value on the table. Thus, effective altruists' preferred means undercut their professed aims. Alongside the charity framework, (...)
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  46. Nothing if not family? Genetic ties beyond the parent/child dyad.Daniela Cutas - 2023 - Bioethics (8):763-770.
    Internationally, there is considerable inconsistency in the recognition and regulation of children's genetic connections outside the family. In the context of gamete and embryo donation, challenges for regulation seem endless. In this paper, I review some of the paths that have been taken to manage children' being closely genetically related to people outside their families. I do so against the background of recognising the importance of children's interests as moral status holders. I look at recent qualitative research involving donor-conceived people (...)
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  47. ICU triage decisions and biases about time and identity.Joona Räsänen - 2023 - Bioethics 37 (7):662-667.
    We often show a greater inclination to assist and avoid harming people identified as those at high risk of great harm than to assist and avoid harming people who will suffer similar harm but are not identified (as yet). Call this the identified person bias. Some ethicists think such bias is justified; others disagree and claim that the bias is discriminatory against statistical people. While the issue is present in public policy and politics, perhaps the most notable examples can be (...)
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  48. Externalist Argument Against Medical Assistance in Dying for Psychiatric Illness.Hane Htut Maung - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (8):553-557.
    Medical assistance in dying, which includes voluntary euthanasia and assisted suicide, is legally permissible in a number of jurisdictions, including the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland and Canada. Although medical assistance in dying is most commonly provided for suffering associated with terminal somatic illness, some jurisdictions have also offered it for severe and irremediable psychiatric illness. Meanwhile, recent work in the philosophy of psychiatry has led to a renewed understanding of psychiatric illness that emphasises the role of the relation between the person (...)
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  49. Priority for Organ Donors in the Allocation of Organs: Priority Rules from the Perspective of Equality of Opportunity.Andreas Albertsen - 2023 - Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 48 (4):359-372.
    Should priority in the allocation of organs be given to those who have previously donated or declared their willingness to do so? This article examines the Israeli priority rule in light of two prominent critiques of priority rules, pertaining to failure to reciprocate and unfairness. The scope and content of these critiques are interpreted from the perspective of equality of opportunity. Because the Israeli priority rule may be reasonably criticized for unfairness and failing to reward certain behaviors, the article develops (...)
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  50. Deception, intention and clinical practice.Nicholas Colgrove - 2023 - Journal of Medical Ethics 49 (7):510-512.
    Regarding the appropriateness of deception in clinical practice, two (apparently conflicting) claims are often emphasised. First, that ‘clinicians should not deceive their patients.’ Second, that deception is sometimes ‘in a patient’s best interest.’ Recently, Hardman has worked towards resolving this conflict by exploring ways in which deceptive and non-deceptive practices extend beyond consideration of patients’ beliefs. In short, some practices only seem deceptive because of the (common) assumption that non-deceptive care is solely aimed at fostering true beliefs. Non-deceptive care, however, (...)
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