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  1. Plato's The Allegory of the Cave.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    The main idea of this allegory is the difference between people who simply experience their sensory experiences, and call that knowledge, and those who understand real knowledge by seeing the truth. The allegory actually digs into some deep philosophy, which is not surprising since it comes from Plato. Its main idea is the discussion of how humans perceive reality and if human existence has a higher truth. It explores the theme of belief versus knowledge. The Perception Plato theorizes that the (...)
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  2. Principal Doctrines of Epicurus.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
    Epicurean philosophy, as Epicurus's teachings became known, was used as the basis for how the community lived and worked. At the time, founding a school and teaching a community of students was the main way philosophical ideas were developed and transmitted. Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–322 BCE), for instance, founded a school in Athens called the Lyceum. Epicurus and his disciples believed either there were no gods or, if there were, the gods were so remote from humans that they were not (...)
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  3. Logic and Music in Plato's Phaedo.Dominic Bailey - 2005 - Phronesis 50 (2):95-115.
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  4. Plato and the Dangerous Pleasures of Poikilia.Jonathan Fine - 2021 - Classical Quarterly 71 (1):152-169.
    A significant strand of the ethical psychology, aesthetics and politics of Plato's Republic revolves around the concept of poikilia, ‘fascinating variety’. Plato uses the concept to caution against harmful appetitive pleasures purveyed by democracy and such artistic or cultural practices as mimetic poetry. His aim, this article shows, is to contest a prominent conceptual connection between poikilia and beauty (kallos, to kalon). Exploiting tensions in the archaic and classical Greek concept, Plato associates poikilia with dangerous pleasures to redirect admiration toward (...)
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  5. How Plato and Hegel Integrate the Sciences, the Arts, Religion, and Philosophy.Robert M. Wallace - 2019 - Hegel Jahrbuch 2019 (1):391-402.
    Plato was among the first to give prominence to the apparent conflicts between philosophy, religion, and the arts, conflicts that are still alive in modern cultures. Philosophers often challenge the legitimacy of religion, in various ways; philosophy as an advocate of ethics challenges the arts as lacking a moral compass; and advocates of the arts and religion stage counterattacks against these challenges. However, Plato wasn’t only a critic of religion and the arts. He had his own preferred version of religion, (...)
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  6. El debate sobre Plato und die Dichter y su inscripción en el contexto de Alemania Nacional-Socialista: una discusión con lecturas de la teoría política.Facundo Bey - 2019 - Ekstasis: Revista de Hermenéutica y Fenomenologí 8 (1):138-163.
    Hans-Georg Gadamer, en su conferencia Plato und die Dichter (1934), desarrolló una investigación fenomenológica excepcional de filosofía ético-política de Platón y del lugar que el arte ocupa en ella. En mediados de la década de 1990, la escritora mexicana Teresa Orozco publicó una serie de escritos en los cuales acusa a Gadamer de haberse colocado, a través de la exhibición y publicación de este trabajo, a servicio del nacional-socialismo. Este artículo busca discutir los argumentos presentados por Orozco y otros autores, (...)
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  7. On Poietic Remembering and Forgetting: Hermeneutic Recollection and Diotima’s Historico-Hermeneutic Leanings.Cynthia R. Nielsen - 2018 - Symposium 22 (2):107-134.
    Like human existence itself, our enduring legacies—whether poetic, ethical, political, or philosophical—continually unfold and require recurrent communal engagement and (re)enactment. In other words, an ongoing performance of significant works must occur, and this task requires the collective human activity of re-membering or gathering-together-again. In the Symposium, Diotima provides an account of human pursuits of immortality through the creation of artifacts, including laws, poems, and philosophical discourses that resonates with Gadamer’s account of our engagement with artworks and texts. This essay explores (...)
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Plato: Beauty
  1. As três definições de Hípias no Hípias Maior de Platão.Renato Semaniuc Valvassori - 2021 - Em Curso 8:1-9.
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  2. Why Eros?Suzanne Obdrzalek - forthcoming - In D. Ebrey and R. Kraut (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Plato.
    One of the ways in which Plato has captured the popular imagination is with the claim that the philosopher can feel erôs, passionate love, for the objects of knowledge. Why should Plato make this claim? In this chapter, I explore Plato’s treatment of philosophical erôs along three dimensions. First, I consider the source of philosophical erôs. I argue that it is grounded in our mortality and imperfection, which give rise to a desire for immortality and the immortal. Second, I turn (...)
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  3. The Compass of Beauty: A Search For the Middle.Lars Spuybroek - 2018 - In Maria Voyatzaki (ed.), Architectural Materialisms: Nonhuman Creativity. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press. pp. 176–204.
    This chapter is a rethinking of my earlier “The Ages of Beauty” which investigated Charles Hartshorne’s Diagram of Aesthetic Values. The argument is placed in a long history of beauty being considered as the middle between extremes. It slowly develops into a structure not merely of aesthetic experience but of existence itself, making it an alternative to Heidegger’s fourfold.
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  4. Sun and Lightning: The Visibility of Radiance.Lars Spuybroek - 2016 - In L. Spuybroek J. Brouwer (ed.), The War of Appearances: Transparency, Opacity, Radiance. Rotterdam, Netherlands: V2_Publishing. pp. 98-127.
    A long chapter for The War of Appearances: Transparency, Opacity, Radiance (V2_Publishing, 2016) building on the findings of “Charis and Radiance,” an essay published two years earlier. It discusses the inherent connection between visibility and radiance within the framework of Plato’s sun model as the source of reality.
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  5. The Guise of the Beautiful: Symposium 204d Ff.Jonathan Fine - 2019 - Phronesis 65 (2):129-152.
    A crux of Plato’s Symposium is how beauty relates to the good. Diotima distinguishes beauty from the good, I show, to explain how erotic pursuits are characteristically ambivalent and opaque. Human beings pursue beauty without knowing why or thinking it good; yet they are rational, if aiming at happiness. Central to this reconstruction is a passage widely taken to show that beauty either coincides with the good or demands disinterested admiration. It shows rather that what one loves as beautiful does (...)
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  6. The Carpenter as a Philosopher Artist: A Critique of Plato's Theory of Mimesis.Ilemobayo John Omogunwa - 2018 - Philosophy Pathways 222 (1).
    Plato’s theory of mimesis is expressed clearly and mainly in Plato’s Republic where he refers to his philosophy of Ideas in his definition of art, by arguing that all arts are imitative in nature. Reality according to him lies with the Idea, and the Form one confronts in this tangible world is a copy of that universal everlasting Idea. He poses that a carpenter’s chair is the result of the idea of chair in his mind, the created chair is once (...)
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  7. Two Passions in Plato’s Symposium: Diotima’s To Kalon as a Reorientation of Imperialistic Erōs.Mateo Duque - 2019 - In Heather L. Reid & Tony Leyh (eds.), Looking at Beauty to Kalon in Western Greece: Selected Essays from the 2018 Symposium on the Heritage of Western Greece. Sioux City, IA, USA: Parnassos Press – Fonte Aretusa. pp. 95-110.
    In this essay, I propose a reading of two contrasting passions, two kinds of erōs, in the "Symposium." On the one hand, there is the imperialistic desire for conquering and possessing that Alcibiades represents; and on the other hand, there is the productive love of immortal wisdom that Diotima represents. It’s not just what Alcibiades says in the Symposium, but also what he symbolizes. Alcibiades gives a speech in honor of Socrates and of his unrequited love for him, but even (...)
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  8. Sun and Lightning: The Visibility of Radiance.Spuybroek Lars - 2016 - In J. Brouwer, S. van Tuinen & L. Spuybroek (eds.), The War of Appearances: Transparency, Opacity, Radiance. V2_Publishing. pp. 98-127.
    A long chapter for The War of Appearances: Transparency, Opacity, Radiance (V2_Publishing, 2016) building on the findings of “Charis and Radiance,” an essay published two years earlier. It discusses the inherent connection between visibility and radiance within the framework of Plato’s sun model as the source of reality. The argument develops a system where transcendent verticality and earthly horizontality together construct an “arena of presence” in which things flood each other with light, absorbing and returning portions of it in a (...)
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  9. The Compass of Beauty: A Search for the Middle.Lars Spuybroek - forthcoming - In Maria Voyatzaki (ed.), Architectural Materialisms: Nonhuman Creativity. Edinburgh University Press.
    This chapter is a rethinking of my earlier “The Ages of Beauty” which investigated Charles Hartshorne’s Diagram of Aesthetic Values. The argument is placed in a long history of beauty being considered as the middle between extremes. It slowly develops into a structure not merely of aesthetic experience but of existence itself, making it a competitor of Heidegger’s fourfold.
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  10. Contemplation and Self-Mastery in Plato's Phaedrus.Suzanne Obdrzalek - 2012 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 42:77-107.
    This chapter examines Plato's moral psychology in the Phaedrus. It argues against interpreters such as Burnyeat and Nussbaum that Plato's treatment of the soul is increasingly pessimistic: reason's desire to contemplate is at odds with its obligation to rule the soul, and psychic harmony can only be secured by violently suppressing the lower parts of the soul.
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  11. The Death of Painting (After Plato).Ryan Drake - 2011 - Research in Phenomenology 41 (1):23-44.
    Whereas the entrance of the monochrome into modern art has typically been understood in light of movements in contemporary art and aesthetic theory following in its wake, this essay seeks to understand the motivations for, and the effect of, the monochrome in the work of Aleksandr Rodchenko in 1921 in reference to Plato's analysis of pure pleasure and absolute beauty in the Philebus . I argue that Rodchenko and Plato were motivated by a shared project to contend with the aesthetic (...)
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  12. Moral Transformation and the Love of Beauty in Plato's Symposium.Suzanne Obdrzalek - 2010 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 48 (4):415-444.
    This paper defends an intellectualist interpretation of Diotima’s speech in Plato’s Symposium. I argue that Diotima’s purpose, in discussing the lower lovers, is to critique their erōs as aimed at a goal it can never secure, immortality, and as focused on an inferior object, themselves. By contrast, in loving the form of beauty, the philosopher gains a mortal sort of completion; in turning outside of himself, he also ceases to be preoccupied by his own incompleteness.
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Plato: Art
  1. Plato’s Ion as an Ethical Performance.Toby Svoboda - 2021 - In Garry Hagberg (ed.), Fictional Worlds and the Moral Imagination. pp. 3-18.
    Plato’s Ion is primarily ethical rather than epistemological, investigating the implications of transgressing one’s own epistemic limits. The figures of Socrates and Ion are juxtaposed in the dialogue, Ion being a laughable, comic, ethically inferior character who cannot recognize his own epistemic limits, Socrates being an elevated, serious, ethically superior character who exhibits disciplined epistemic restraint. The point of the dialogue is to contrast Ion’s laughable state with the serious state of Socrates. In this sense, the dialogue’s central argument is (...)
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  2. The Carpenter as a Philosopher Artist: A Critique of Plato's Theory of Mimesis.Ilemobayo John Omogunwa - 2018 - Philosophy Pathways 222 (1).
    Plato’s theory of mimesis is expressed clearly and mainly in Plato’s Republic where he refers to his philosophy of Ideas in his definition of art, by arguing that all arts are imitative in nature. Reality according to him lies with the Idea, and the Form one confronts in this tangible world is a copy of that universal everlasting Idea. He poses that a carpenter’s chair is the result of the idea of chair in his mind, the created chair is once (...)
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  3. The Politics of Mimesis in the Platonic Dialogues: A Comment on Plato’s Art Theory From the Vantage Point of the Statesman.Constantinos V. Proimos - 2002 - International Studies in Philosophy 34 (2):83-93.
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  4. Socrates' Graveyard.William Behun - 2010 - Semiotics:137-143.
    Statues, monuments, cenotaphs and markers litter the landscape of Plato’s Phaedrus. By drawing together these numerous references and examining the economy of these silent symbols, we can gain an insight into Plato’s project, especially as it relates to questions of narrative, speech and writing. While the examination of the myth of Theuth is familiar to scholars of both Plato and Derrida, what is often overlooked is the way in which writing and speech are represented in the text by monuments, which (...)
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  5. Platon: In Bildern Denken.David Ambuel - 2010 - In Johannes Grave & Arno Schubbach (eds.), Denken mit dem Bild: Platon, Plotin, Augustinus, Cusanus. Fink.
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  6. A Philosophy of Art in Plato's Republic: An Analysis of Collingwood's Proposal.José Juan González - 2010 - Proceeding of the European Society for Aesthetics 2:161-177.
    The status of art in Plato's philosophy has always been a difficult problem. As a matter of fact, he even threw the poets out from his ideal state, a passage that has led some interpreters to assess that Plato did not develop a proper philosophy of art. Nevertheless, R. G. Collingwood, wrote an article titled “Plato's Philosophy of Art”. How can it be? What could lead one of the most important aesthetic scholars of the first half of the twentieth century (...)
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Plato: Imitation
  1. Plato on Poetic and Musical Representation.Justin Vlasits - 2021 - In Platonic Mimesis Revisited. Baden-Baden, Germany: pp. 147-165.
    Plato’s most infamous discussions of poetry in the Republic, in which he both develops original distinctions in narratology and advocates some form of censorship, raises numerous philosophical and philological questions. Foremost among them, perhaps, is the puzzle of why he returns to poetry in Book X after having dealt with it thoroughly in Books II–III, particularly because his accounts of the “mimetic” aspect of poetry are, on their face, quite different. How are we to understand this double treatment? Here I (...)
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  2. How to Play the Platonic Flute: Mimêsis and Truth in Republic X.Gene Fendt - 2018 - In Heather L. Reid & Jeremy C. DeLong (eds.), The Many Faces of Mimēsis: Selected Essays from the Third Interdisciplinary Symposium on the Heritage of Western Greece,. Sioux City, IA, USA: Parnassos Press. pp. 37-48.
    The usual interpretation of Republic 10 takes it as Socrates’ multilevel philosophical demonstration of the untruth and dangerousness of mimesis and its required excision from a well ordered polity. Such readings miss the play of the Platonic mimesis which has within it precisely ordered antistrophes which turn its oft remarked strophes perfectly around. First, this argument, famously concluding to the unreliability of image-makers for producing knowledge begins with two images—the mirror (596e) and the painter. I will show both undercut the (...)
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  3. The Carpenter as a Philosopher Artist: A Critique of Plato's Theory of Mimesis.Ilemobayo John Omogunwa - 2018 - Philosophy Pathways 222 (1).
    Plato’s theory of mimesis is expressed clearly and mainly in Plato’s Republic where he refers to his philosophy of Ideas in his definition of art, by arguing that all arts are imitative in nature. Reality according to him lies with the Idea, and the Form one confronts in this tangible world is a copy of that universal everlasting Idea. He poses that a carpenter’s chair is the result of the idea of chair in his mind, the created chair is once (...)
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  4. Le logos du sophiste. Image et parole dans le Sophiste de Platon.Felipe Ledesma - 2009 - Elenchos: Rivista di Studi Sul Pensiero Antico 30 (2):207-254.
    The logos question, one of the most important among the subjects that traverse the Plato's Sophist, has in fact some different aspects: the criticism of father Parmenides' logos, that is unable to speak about the not-being, but also about the being; the relations between logos and its cognates, phantasia, doxa and dianoia; the logos’ complex structure, that is a compound with onoma and rema; the difference between naming and saying, two distinct but inseparable actions; the logical and ontological conditions that (...)
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  5. The Return of the Exile: The Benefits of Mimetic Literature in the Republic.Miriam Byrd - 2010 - In Robert Berchman John Finamore (ed.), Conversations Platonic and Neoplatonic. Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag.
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Plato: Poetry
  1. Plato’s Ion as an Ethical Performance.Toby Svoboda - 2021 - In Garry Hagberg (ed.), Fictional Worlds and the Moral Imagination. pp. 3-18.
    Plato’s Ion is primarily ethical rather than epistemological, investigating the implications of transgressing one’s own epistemic limits. The figures of Socrates and Ion are juxtaposed in the dialogue, Ion being a laughable, comic, ethically inferior character who cannot recognize his own epistemic limits, Socrates being an elevated, serious, ethically superior character who exhibits disciplined epistemic restraint. The point of the dialogue is to contrast Ion’s laughable state with the serious state of Socrates. In this sense, the dialogue’s central argument is (...)
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  2. Submitting a Case for Plato's Rejection of Mimetic Poetry as a Rejection of the Mimetic Vocabulary.Marius Hirstad - manuscript
    In book X, Plato's rejection of mimetic poetry can be read as a parallel to rejecting the conventions of the poetic style contemporary to his time. This rejection can, owing to the premises derived and the analyses made in this paper, further be read as to suggest that Plato presses for a reformation of the poetic vocabulary. That is, as to suggest that Plato proposes that the non-rational imagistic tradition, embodied in mimetic poetry, get replaced by a rational and noetic-aspiring (...)
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  3. The Carpenter as a Philosopher Artist: A Critique of Plato's Theory of Mimesis.Ilemobayo John Omogunwa - 2018 - Philosophy Pathways 222 (1).
    Plato’s theory of mimesis is expressed clearly and mainly in Plato’s Republic where he refers to his philosophy of Ideas in his definition of art, by arguing that all arts are imitative in nature. Reality according to him lies with the Idea, and the Form one confronts in this tangible world is a copy of that universal everlasting Idea. He poses that a carpenter’s chair is the result of the idea of chair in his mind, the created chair is once (...)
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  4. Writing Knowledge in the Soul: Orality, Literacy, and Plato’s Critique of Poetry.Lawrence J. Hatab - 2007 - Epoché: A Journal for the History of Philosophy 11 (2):319-332.
    In this essay I take up Plato’s critique of poetry, which has little to do with epistemology and representational imitation, but rather the powerful effects that poeticperformances can have on audiences, enthralling them with vivid image-worlds and blocking the powers of critical reflection. By focusing on the perceived psychological dangers of poetry in performance and reception, I want to suggest that Plato’s critique was caught up in the larger story of momentous shifts in the Greek world, turning on the rise (...)
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  5. Ion: Plato’s Defense of Poetry.Gene Fendt - 1997 - International Studies in Philosophy 29 (4):23-50.
    This reading of Plato's Ion shows that the philosophic action mimed and engendered by the dialogue thoroughly reverses its (and Plato's) often supposed philosophical point, revealing that poetry is just as defensible as philosophy, and only in the same way. It is by Plato's indirections we find true directions out: the war between philosophy and poetry is a hoax on Plato's part, and a mistake on the part of his literalist readers. The dilemma around which the dialogue moves is false, (...)
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  6. Poetry and Hedonic Error in Plato’s Republic.J. Clerk Shaw - 2016 - Phronesis 61 (4):373-396.
    This paper reads Republic 583b-608b as a single, continuous line of argument. First, Socrates distinguishes real from apparent pleasure and argues that justice is more pleasant than injustice. Next, he describes how pleasures nourish the soul. This line of argument continues into the second discussion of poetry: tragic pleasures are mixed pleasures in the soul that seem greater than they are; indulging them nourishes appetite and corrupts the soul. The paper argues that Plato has a novel account of the ‘paradox (...)
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  7. On the Ancient Idea That Music Shapes Character.James Harold - 2016 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 15 (3):341-354.
    Ancient Chinese and Greek thinkers alike were preoccupied with the moral value of music; they distinguished between good and bad music by looking at the music’s effect on moral character. The idea can be understood in terms of two closely related questions. Does music have the power to affect the ethical character of either listener or performer? If it does, is it better as music for doing so? I argue that an affirmative answers to both questions are more plausible than (...)
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  8. Republic 382a-D: On the Dangers and Benefits of Falsehood.Nicholas R. Baima - 2017 - Classical Philology 112 (1):1-19.
    Socrates' attitude towards falsehood is quite puzzling in the Republic. Although Socrates is clearly committed to truth, at several points he discusses the benefits of falsehood. This occurs most notably in Book 3 with the "noble lie" (414d-415c) and most disturbingly in Book 5 with the "rigged sexual lottery" (459d-460c). This raises the question: What kinds of falsehoods does Socrates think are beneficial, and what kinds of falsehoods does he think are harmful? And more broadly: What can this tell us (...)
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  9. Plato: Poet: Lysis: Poem.Ginger Osborn - 1995 - Dissertation, Vanderbilt University
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Plato: Aesthetics, Misc
  1. As três definições de Hípias no Hípias Maior de Platão.Renato Semaniuc Valvassori - 2021 - Em Curso 8:1-9.
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  2. Anatomia do Cômico.Felipe Ramos Gall - 2021 - Dissertation, PUC-Rio, Brazil
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  3. The Carpenter as a Philosopher Artist: A Critique of Plato's Theory of Mimesis.Ilemobayo John Omogunwa - 2018 - Philosophy Pathways 222 (1).
    Plato’s theory of mimesis is expressed clearly and mainly in Plato’s Republic where he refers to his philosophy of Ideas in his definition of art, by arguing that all arts are imitative in nature. Reality according to him lies with the Idea, and the Form one confronts in this tangible world is a copy of that universal everlasting Idea. He poses that a carpenter’s chair is the result of the idea of chair in his mind, the created chair is once (...)
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  4. Sun and Lightning: The Visibility of Radiance.Spuybroek Lars - 2016 - In J. Brouwer, S. van Tuinen & L. Spuybroek (eds.), The War of Appearances: Transparency, Opacity, Radiance. V2_Publishing. pp. 98-127.
    A long chapter for The War of Appearances: Transparency, Opacity, Radiance (V2_Publishing, 2016) building on the findings of “Charis and Radiance,” an essay published two years earlier. It discusses the inherent connection between visibility and radiance within the framework of Plato’s sun model as the source of reality. The argument develops a system where transcendent verticality and earthly horizontality together construct an “arena of presence” in which things flood each other with light, absorbing and returning portions of it in a (...)
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  5. On the Ancient Idea That Music Shapes Character.James Harold - 2016 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 15 (3):341-354.
    Ancient Chinese and Greek thinkers alike were preoccupied with the moral value of music; they distinguished between good and bad music by looking at the music’s effect on moral character. The idea can be understood in terms of two closely related questions. Does music have the power to affect the ethical character of either listener or performer? If it does, is it better as music for doing so? I argue that an affirmative answers to both questions are more plausible than (...)
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  6. The Return of the Exile: The Benefits of Mimetic Literature in the Republic.Miriam Byrd - 2010 - In Robert Berchman John Finamore (ed.), Conversations Platonic and Neoplatonic. Sankt Augustin: Academia Verlag.
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  7. Laughing to Learn: Irony in the Republic as Pedagogy.Jonathan Fine - 2011 - Polis 28 (2):235-49.
    [Condensed abstract] Socrates' ironic use of 'makaria' (blessedness) in the Republic exhorts Glaucon to think more critically. Certain features of the supposedly ideal city, motivated by Glaucon's character, may be protreptic for Glaucon to practice philosophical courage and intellectual moderation.
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