Results for 'Heyting algebras'

359 found
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  1. G'3 as the logic of modal 3-valued Heyting algebras.Marcelo E. Coniglio, Aldo Figallo-Orellano, Alejandro Hernández-Tello & Miguel Perez-Gaspar - 2022 - IfCoLog Journal of Logics and Their Applications 9 (1):175-197.
    In 2001, W. Carnielli and Marcos considered a 3-valued logic in order to prove that the schema ϕ ∨ (ϕ → ψ) is not a theorem of da Costa’s logic Cω. In 2006, this logic was studied (and baptized) as G'3 by Osorio et al. as a tool to define semantics of logic programming. It is known that the truth-tables of G'3 have the same expressive power than the one of Łukasiewicz 3-valued logic as well as the one of Gödel (...)
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  2. Heyting Mereology as a Framework for Spatial Reasoning.Thomas Mormann - 2013 - Axiomathes 23 (1):137- 164.
    In this paper it is shown that Heyting and Co-Heyting mereological systems provide a convenient conceptual framework for spatial reasoning, in which spatial concepts such as connectedness, interior parts, (exterior) contact, and boundary can be defined in a natural and intuitively appealing way. This fact refutes the wide-spread contention that mereology cannot deal with the more advanced aspects of spatial reasoning and therefore has to be enhanced by further non-mereological concepts to overcome its congenital limitations. The allegedly unmereological (...)
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  3. Intuitionistic Modal Algebras.Sergio A. Celani & Umberto Rivieccio - forthcoming - Studia Logica:1-50.
    Recent research on algebraic models of _quasi-Nelson logic_ has brought new attention to a number of classes of algebras which result from enriching (subreducts of) Heyting algebras with a special modal operator, known in the literature as a _nucleus_. Among these various algebraic structures, for which we employ the umbrella term _intuitionistic modal algebras_, some have been studied since at least the 1970s, usually within the framework of topology and sheaf theory. Others may seem more exotic, for (...)
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  4. Revisiting Constructive Mingle: Algebraic and Operational Semantics.Yale Weiss - 2022 - In Katalin Bimbo (ed.), Essays in Honor of J. Michael Dunn. College Publications. pp. 435-455.
    Among Dunn’s many important contributions to relevance logic was his work on the system RM (R-mingle). Although RM is an interesting system in its own right, it is widely considered to be too strong. In this chapter, I revisit a closely related system, RM0 (sometimes known as ‘constructive mingle’), which includes the mingle axiom while not degenerating in the way that RM itself does. My main interest will be in examining this logic from two related semantical perspectives. First, I give (...)
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  5. Completeness and Doxastic Plurality for Topological Operators of Knowledge and Belief.Thomas Mormann - 2023 - Erkenntnis: 1 - 34, ONLINE.
    The first aim of this paper is to prove a topological completeness theorem for a weak version of Stalnaker’s logic KB of knowledge and belief. The weak version of KB is characterized by the assumption that the axioms and rules of KB have to be satisfied with the exception of the axiom (NI) of negative introspection. The proof of a topological completeness theorem for weak KB is based on the fact that nuclei (as defined in the framework of point-free topology) (...)
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  6. Intuitionistic logic versus paraconsistent logic. Categorical approach.Mariusz Kajetan Stopa - 2023 - Dissertation, Jagiellonian University
    The main research goal of the work is to study the notion of co-topos, its correctness, properties and relations with toposes. In particular, the dualization process proposed by proponents of co-toposes has been analyzed, which transforms certain Heyting algebras of toposes into co-Heyting ones, by which a kind of paraconsistent logic may appear in place of intuitionistic logic. It has been shown that if certain two definitions of topos are to be equivalent, then in one of them, (...)
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  7.  62
    B-frame duality.Guillaume Massas - 2023 - Annals of Pure and Applied Logic 174 (5):103245.
    This paper introduces the category of b-frames as a new tool in the study of complete lattices. B-frames can be seen as a generalization of posets, which play an important role in the representation theory of Heyting algebras, but also in the study of complete Boolean algebras in forcing. This paper combines ideas from the two traditions in order to generalize some techniques and results to the wider context of complete lattices. In particular, we lift a representation (...)
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  8. Belief Modalities Defined by Nuclei.Thomas Mormann - manuscript
    Abstract. The aim of this paper is to show that the topological interpretation of knowledge as an interior kernel operator K of a topological space (X, OX) comes along with a partially ordered family of belief modalities B that fit K in the sense that the pairs (K, B) satisfy all axioms of Stalnaker’s KB logic of knowledge and belief with the exception of the contentious axiom of negative introspection (NI). The new belief modalities B introduced in this paper are (...)
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  9. Intermediate Logics and the de Jongh property.Dick de Jongh, Rineke Verbrugge & Albert Visser - 2011 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 50 (1-2):197-213.
    We prove that all extensions of Heyting Arithmetic with a logic that has the finite frame property possess the de Jongh property.
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  10. Intermediate Logics and the de Jongh property.Dick Jongh, Rineke Verbrugge & Albert Visser - 2011 - Archive for Mathematical Logic 50 (1-2):197-213.
    We prove that all extensions of Heyting Arithmetic with a logic that has the finite frame property possess the de Jongh property.
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  11. À Maneira de Um Colar de Pérolas?André Porto - 2017 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 73 (3-4):1381-1404.
    This paper offers an overview of various alternative formulations for Analysis, the theory of Integral and Differential Calculus, and its diverging conceptions of the topological structure of the continuum. We pay particularly attention to Smooth Analysis, a proposal created by William Lawvere and Anders Kock based on Grothendieck’s work on a categorical algebraic geometry. The role of Heyting’s logic, common to all these alternatives is emphasized.
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  12. From the History of Physics to the Discovery of the Foundations of Physics,.Antonino Drago - manuscript
    FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS TO THE DISCOVERY OF THE FOUNDATIONS OF PHYSICS By Antonino Drago, formerly at Naples University “Federico II”, Italy – drago@unina,.it (Size : 391.800 bytes 75,400 words) The book summarizes a half a century author’s work on the foundations of physics. For the forst time is established a level of discourse on theoretical physics which at the same time is philosophical in nature (kinds of infinity, kinds of organization) and formal (kinds of mathematics, kinds of logic). (...)
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  13. McKinsey Algebras and Topological Models of S4.1.Thomas Mormann - manuscript
    The aim of this paper is to show that every topological space gives rise to a wealth of topological models of the modal logic S4.1. The construction of these models is based on the fact that every space defines a Boolean closure algebra (to be called a McKinsey algebra) that neatly reflects the structure of the modal system S4.1. It is shown that the class of topological models based on McKinsey algebras contains a canonical model that can be used (...)
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  14. Agglomerative Algebras.Jeremy Goodman - 2018 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 48 (4):631-648.
    This paper investigates a generalization of Boolean algebras which I call agglomerative algebras. It also outlines two conceptions of propositions according to which they form an agglomerative algebra but not a Boolean algebra with respect to conjunction and negation.
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  15. Hyperboolean Algebras and Hyperboolean Modal Logic.Valentin Goranko & Dimiter Vakarelov - 1999 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 9 (2):345-368.
    Hyperboolean algebras are Boolean algebras with operators, constructed as algebras of complexes (or, power structures) of Boolean algebras. They provide an algebraic semantics for a modal logic (called here a {\em hyperboolean modal logic}) with a Kripke semantics accordingly based on frames in which the worlds are elements of Boolean algebras and the relations correspond to the Boolean operations. We introduce the hyperboolean modal logic, give a complete axiomatization of it, and show that it lacks (...)
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  16. An Algebraic View of Super-Belnap Logics.Hugo Albuquerque, Adam Přenosil & Umberto Rivieccio - 2017 - Studia Logica 105 (6):1051-1086.
    The Belnap–Dunn logic is a well-known and well-studied four-valued logic, but until recently little has been known about its extensions, i.e. stronger logics in the same language, called super-Belnap logics here. We give an overview of several results on these logics which have been proved in recent works by Přenosil and Rivieccio. We present Hilbert-style axiomatizations, describe reduced matrix models, and give a description of the lattice of super-Belnap logics and its connections with graph theory. We adopt the point of (...)
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  17. Improving Algebraic Thinking Skill, Beliefs And Attitude For Mathematics Throught Learning Cycle Based On Beliefs.Widodo Winarso & Toheri - 2017 - Munich University Library.
    In the recent years, problem-solving become a central topic that discussed by educators or researchers in mathematics education. it’s not only as the ability or as a method of teaching. but also, it is a little in reviewing about the components of the support to succeed in problem-solving, such as student's belief and attitude towards mathematics, algebraic thinking skills, resources and teaching materials. In this paper, examines the algebraic thinking skills as a foundation for problem-solving, and learning cycle as a (...)
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  18. Cognition, Algebra, and Culture in the Tongan Kinship Terminology.Giovanni Bennardo & Dwight Read - 2007 - Journal of Cognition and Culture 7 (1-2):49-88.
    We present an algebraic account of the Tongan kinship terminology (TKT) that provides an insightful journey into the fabric of Tongan culture. We begin with the ethnographic account of a social event. The account provides us with the activities of that day and the centrality of kin relations in the event, but it does not inform us of the conceptual system that the participants bring with them. Rather, it is a slice in time of an ongoing dynamic process that links (...)
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  19. Neutrosophic Algebraic Structures and Their Applications.Florentin Smarandache, Memet Şahin, Derya Bakbak, Vakkas Uluçay & Abdullah Kargın - 2022 - Gallup, NM, USA: NSIA Publishing House.
    Neutrosophic theory and its applications have been expanding in all directions at an astonishing rate especially after of the introduction the journal entitled “Neutrosophic Sets and Systems”. New theories, techniques, algorithms have been rapidly developed. One of the most striking trends in the neutrosophic theory is the hybridization of neutrosophic set with other potential sets such as rough set, bipolar set, soft set, hesitant fuzzy set, etc. The different hybrid structures such as rough neutrosophic set, single valued neutrosophic rough set, (...)
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  20. Algebra of Theoretical Term Reductions in the Sciences.Dale Jacquette - 2014 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 1 (1): 51-67.
    An elementary algebra identifies conceptual and corresponding applicational limitations in John Kemeny and Paul Oppenheim’s (K-O) 1956 model of theoretical reduction in the sciences. The K-O model was once widely accepted, at least in spirit, but seems afterward to have been discredited, or in any event superceeded. Today, the K-O reduction model is seldom mentioned, except to clarify when a reduction in the Kemeny-Oppenheim sense is not intended. The present essay takes a fresh look at the basic mathematics of K-O (...)
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  21.  37
    Nilpotent Symplectic Alternating Algebras.L. Sorkatti & G. Traustason - 2015 - Journal of Algebra 423:615-635.
    We develop a structure theory for nilpotent symplectic alternating algebras.
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  22. Connecting the revolutionary with the conventional: Rethinking the differences between the works of Brouwer, Heyting, and Weyl.Kati Kish Bar-On - 2023 - Philosophy of Science 90 (3):580–602.
    Brouwer’s intuitionism was a far-reaching attempt to reform the foundations of mathematics. While the mathematical community was reluctant to accept Brouwer’s work, its response to later-developed brands of intuitionism, such as those presented by Hermann Weyl and Arend Heyting, was different. The paper accounts for this difference by analyzing the intuitionistic versions of Brouwer, Weyl, and Heyting in light of a two-tiered model of the body and image of mathematical knowledge. Such a perspective provides a richer account of (...)
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  23.  36
    Nilpotent Symplectic Alternating Algebras.Layla Sorkatti - 2015 - Dissertation, University of Bath
    We develop a structure theory for nilpotent symplectic alternating algebras. -/- We then give a classification of all nilpotent symplectic alternating algebras of dimension up to 10 over any field F. The study reveals a new subclasses of powerful groups that we call powerfully nilpotent groups and powerfully soluble groups.
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  24. The algebra of negativity. Hegel, Heidegger and their legacy in the contemporary scenario.Francesca Brencio - 2021 - In Antonio Lucci & Jan Knobloch (eds.), Gegen das Leben, gegen die Welt, gegen mich selbst. Figuren der Negativität. pp. 117-132.
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  25. Paskian Algebra: A Discursive Approach to Conversational Multi-agent Systems.Thomas Manning - 2023 - Cybernetics and Human Knowing 30 (1-2):67-81.
    The purpose of this study is to compile a selection of the various formalisms found in conversation theory to introduce readers to Pask's discursive algebra. In this way, the text demonstrates how concept sharing and concept formation by means of the interaction of two participants may be formalized. The approach taken in this study is to examine the formal notation system used by Pask and demonstrate how such formalisms may be used to represent concept sharing and concept formation through conversation. (...)
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  26. Álgebras booleanas, órdenes parciales y axioma de elección.Franklin Galindo - 2017 - Divulgaciones Matematicas 18 ( 1):34-54.
    El objetivo de este artículo es presentar una demostración de un teorema clásico sobre álgebras booleanas y ordenes parciales de relevancia actual en teoría de conjuntos, como por ejemplo, para aplicaciones del método de construcción de modelos llamado “forcing” (con álgebras booleanas completas o con órdenes parciales). El teorema que se prueba es el siguiente: “Todo orden parcial se puede extender a una única álgebra booleana completa (salvo isomorfismo)”. Donde extender significa “sumergir densamente”. Tal demostración se realiza utilizando cortaduras de (...)
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  27. ALGEBRA OF FUNDAMENTAL MEASUREMENTS AS A BASIS OF DYNAMICS OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS.Sergiy Melnyk - 2012 - arXiv.
    We propose an axiomatic approach to constructing the dynamics of systems, in which one the main elements 9e8 is the consciousness of a subject. The main axiom is the statements that the state of consciousness is completely determined by the results of measurements performed on it. In case of economic systems we propose to consider an offer of transaction as a fundamental measurement. Transactions with delayed choice, discussed in this paper, represent a logical generalization of incomplete transactions and allow for (...)
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  28. Algebraic symbolism in medieval Arabic algebra.Jeffrey A. Oaks - 2012 - Philosophica 87 (4):27-83.
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  29. An Overview of Plithogenic Set and Symbolic Plithogenic Algebraic Structures.Florentin Smarandache - 2023 - Journal of Fuzzy Extension and Applications 4 (1):48–55.
    This paper is devoted to Plithogeny, Plithogenic Set, and its extensions. These concepts are branches of uncertainty and indeterminacy instruments of practical and theoretical interest. Starting with some examples, we proceed towards general structures. Then we present definitions and applications of the principal concepts derived from plithogeny, and relate them to complex problems.
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  30. Non-deterministic algebraization of logics by swap structures1.Marcelo E. Coniglio, Aldo Figallo-Orellano & Ana Claudia Golzio - 2020 - Logic Journal of the IGPL 28 (5):1021-1059.
    Multialgebras have been much studied in mathematics and in computer science. In 2016 Carnielli and Coniglio introduced a class of multialgebras called swap structures, as a semantic framework for dealing with several Logics of Formal Inconsistency that cannot be semantically characterized by a single finite matrix. In particular, these LFIs are not algebraizable by the standard tools of abstract algebraic logic. In this paper, the first steps towards a theory of non-deterministic algebraization of logics by swap structures are given. Specifically, (...)
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  31. The Basic Algebra of Game Equivalences.Valentin Goranko - 2003 - Studia Logica 75 (2):221-238.
    We give a complete axiomatization of the identities of the basic game algebra valid with respect to the abstract game board semantics. We also show that the additional conditions of termination and determinacy of game boards do not introduce new valid identities.En route we introduce a simple translation of game terms into plain modal logic and thus translate, while preserving validity both ways, game identities into modal formulae.The completeness proof is based on reduction of game terms to a certain ‘minimal (...)
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  32. Algebraic structures of neutrosophic triplets, neutrosophic duplets, or neutrosophic multisets. Volume I.Florentin Smarandache, Xiaohong Zhang & Mumtaz Ali - 2018 - Basel, Switzerland: MDPI. Edited by Florentin Smarandache, Xiaohong Zhang & Mumtaz Ali.
    The topics approached in the 52 papers included in this book are: neutrosophic sets; neutrosophic logic; generalized neutrosophic set; neutrosophic rough set; multigranulation neutrosophic rough set (MNRS); neutrosophic cubic sets; triangular fuzzy neutrosophic sets (TFNSs); probabilistic single-valued (interval) neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set; neutro-homomorphism; neutrosophic computation; quantum computation; neutrosophic association rule; data mining; big data; oracle Turing machines; recursive enumerability; oracle computation; interval number; dependent degree; possibility degree; power aggregation operators; multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM); expert set; soft sets; LA-semihypergroups; single valued (...)
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  33. Algebraic structures of neutrosophic triplets, neutrosophic duplets, or neutrosophic multisets. Volume II.Florentin Smarandache, Xiaohong Zhang & Mumtaz Ali - 2019 - Basel, Switzerland: MDPI.
    The topics approached in this collection of papers are: neutrosophic sets; neutrosophic logic; generalized neutrosophic set; neutrosophic rough set; multigranulation neutrosophic rough set (MNRS); neutrosophic cubic sets; triangular fuzzy neutrosophic sets (TFNSs); probabilistic single-valued (interval) neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set; neutro-homomorphism; neutrosophic computation; quantum computation; neutrosophic association rule; data mining; big data; oracle Turing machines; recursive enumerability; oracle computation; interval number; dependent degree; possibility degree; power aggregation operators; multi-criteria group decision-making (MCGDM); expert set; soft sets; LA-semihypergroups; single valued trapezoidal neutrosophic number; (...)
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  34. Algebraic aspects and coherence conditions for conjoined and disjoined conditionals.Angelo Gilio & Giuseppe Sanfilippo - 2020 - International Journal of Approximate Reasoning 126:98-123.
    We deepen the study of conjoined and disjoined conditional events in the setting of coherence. These objects, differently from other approaches, are defined in the framework of conditional random quantities. We show that some well known properties, valid in the case of unconditional events, still hold in our approach to logical operations among conditional events. In particular we prove a decomposition formula and a related additive property. Then, we introduce the set of conditional constituents generated by $n$ conditional events and (...)
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  35. Clifford Algebra: A Case for Geometric and Ontological Unification.William Michael Kallfelz - 2009 - VDM Verlagsservicegesellschaft MbH.
    Robert Batterman’s ontological insights (2002, 2004, 2005) are apt: Nature abhors singularities. “So should we,” responds the physicist. However, the epistemic assessments of Batterman concerning the matter prove to be less clear, for in the same vein he write that singularities play an essential role in certain classes of physical theories referring to certain types of critical phenomena. I devise a procedure (“methodological fundamentalism”) which exhibits how singularities, at least in principle, may be avoided within the same classes of formalisms (...)
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  36.  60
    Introduction to the Symbolic Plithogenic Algebraic Structures (revisited).Florentin Smarandache - 2023 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 53.
    In this paper, we recall and study the new type of algebraic structures called Symbolic Plithogenic Algebraic Structures. Their operations are given under the Absorbance Law and the Prevalence Order.
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  37. Weak islands and an algebraic semantics for scope taking.Anna Szabolcsi & Frans Zwarts - 1997 - In Ways of Scope Taking. Kluwer Academic Publishers.
    Modifying the descriptive and theoretical generalizations of Relativized Minimality, we argue that a significant subset of weak island violations arise when an extracted phrase should scope over some intervener but is unable to. Harmless interveners seem harmless because they can support an alternative reading. This paper focuses on why certain wh-phrases are poor wide scope takers, and offers an algebraic perspective on scope interaction. Each scopal element SE is associated with certain operations (e.g., not with complements). When a wh-phrase scopes (...)
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  38.  91
    Pura Vida Neutrosophic Algebra.Ranulfo Paiva Barbosa & Florentin Smarandache - 2023 - Neutrosophic Systems with Applications 9.
    We introduce Pura Vida Neutrosophic Algebra, an algebraic structure consisting of neutrosophic numbers equipped with two binary operations namely addition and multiplication. The addition can be calculated sometimes with the function min and other times with the max function. The multiplication operation is the usual sum between numbers. Pura Vida Neutrosophic Algebra is an extension of both Tropical Algebra (also known as Min-Plus, or Min-Algebra) and Max-Plus Algebra (also known as Max-algebra). Tropical and Max-Plus algebras are algebraic structures included (...)
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  39. Lower and Upper Estimates of the Quantity of Algebraic Numbers.Yaroslav Sergeyev - 2023 - Mediterranian Journal of Mathematics 20:12.
    It is well known that the set of algebraic numbers (let us call it A) is countable. In this paper, instead of the usage of the classical terminology of cardinals proposed by Cantor, a recently introduced methodology using ①-based infinite numbers is applied to measure the set A (where the number ① is called grossone). Our interest to this methodology is explained by the fact that in certain cases where cardinals allow one to say only whether a set is countable (...)
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  40. The Algebraic Creativity in The Neutrosophic Square Matrices‏.Mohammad Abobala, Ahmed Hatip, A. A. Salama, Necati Olgun, Broumi Said & Huda E. Khaled - 2021 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 40:1-11.
    The objective of this paper is to study algebraic properties of neutrosophic matrices, where a necessary and sufficient condition for the invertibility of a square neutrosophic matrix is presented by defining the neutrosophic determinant. On the other hand, this work introduces the concept of neutrosophic Eigen values and vectors with an easy algorithm to compute them. Also, this article finds a necessary and sufficient condition for the diagonalization of a neutrosophic matrix.
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  41. Algebraic Structures using Super Interval Matrices.W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy & Florentin Smarandache - 2011 - Columbus, OH, USA: Educational Publisher.
    In this book authors for the first time introduce the notion of super interval matrices using special intervals. The advantage of using super interval matrices is that one can build only one vector space using m × n interval matrices, but in case of super interval matrices we can have several such spaces depending on the partition on the interval matrix.
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  42. Proof in C17 Algebra.Brendan Larvor - 2005 - Philosophia Scientiae:43-59.
    By the middle of the seventeenth century we that find that algebra is able to offer proofs in its own right. That is, by that time algebraic argument had achieved the status of proof. How did this transformation come about?
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  43. SOFT NEUTROSOPHIC ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURES AND THEIR GENERALIZATION, Vol. 1.Florentin Smarandache, Mumtaz Ali & Muhammad Shabir - 2014 - Columbus, OH, USA: Educational Publisher.
    In this book the authors introduced the notions of soft neutrosophic algebraic structures. These soft neutrosophic algebraic structures are basically defined over the neutrosophic algebraic structures which means a parameterized collection of subsets of the neutrosophic algebraic structure. For instance, the existence of a soft neutrosophic group over a neutrosophic group or a soft neutrosophic semigroup over a neutrosophic semigroup, or a soft neutrosophic field over a neutrosophic field, or a soft neutrosophic LA-semigroup over a neutrosophic LAsemigroup, or a soft (...)
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  44. The Contact Algebra of the Euclidean Plane has Infinitely Many Elements.Thomas Mormann - manuscript
    Abstract. Let REL(O*E) be the relation algebra of binary relations defined on the Boolean algebra O*E of regular open regions of the Euclidean plane E. The aim of this paper is to prove that the canonical contact relation C of O*E generates a subalgebra REL(O*E, C) of REL(O*E) that has infinitely many elements. More precisely, REL(O*,C) contains an infinite family {SPPn, n ≥ 1} of relations generated by the relation SPP (Separable Proper Part). This relation can be used to define (...)
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  45. Neutro-BCK-Algebra.Mohammad Hamidi & Florentin Smarandache - 2020 - International Journal of Neutrosophic Science 8 (2):110-117.
    This paper introduces the novel concept of Neutro-BCK-algebra. In Neutro-BCK-algebra, the outcome of any given two elements under an underlying operation (neutro-sophication procedure) has three cases, such as: appurtenance, non-appurtenance, or indeterminate.
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  46.  34
    Nilpotent symplectic alternating algebras II.L. Sorkatti & G. Traustason - 2016 - International Journal of Algebra and Comp 26:1071-1094.
    In this paper and its sequel we continue our study of nilpotent symplectic alternating algebras. In particular we give a full classification of such algebras of dimension 10 over any field. It is known that symplectic alternating algebras over GF(3) correspond to a special rich class C of 2-Engel 3-groups of exponent 27 and under this correspondence we will see that the nilpotent algebras correspond to a subclass of C that are those groups in C that (...)
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  47. An Algebra for Tracing Categories of Social Processes: From a Surprising Fact to Middle-Range Theory using Categorical-Generative Analysis.Bruno da Rocha Braga - manuscript
    This paper describes a method for the analysis of the evolutionary path of a complex, dynamic, and contingent social phenomenon in an empirical setting. Given empirical evidence of a surprising or anomalous fact, which contradicts the prediction of the wide-acknowledged theory, the goal is to formulate a plausible explanation based on the context of occurrence, taking a holistic and historical point of view. The procedure begins by translating theoretical propositions into grammar rules to describe patterns of either individual action or (...)
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  48. Super Linear Algebra.W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy & Florentin Smarandache - 2008 - Ann Arbor, MI, USA: ProQuest Information & Learning.
    In this book, the authors introduce the notion of Super linear algebra and super vector spaces using the definition of super matrices defined by Horst (1963). Many theorems on super linear algebra and its properties are proved. Some theorems are left as exercises for the reader. These new class of super linear algebras which can be thought of as a set of linear algebras, following a stipulated condition, will find applications in several fields using computers. The authors feel (...)
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  49.  96
    SOFT NEUTROSOPHIC ALGEBRAIC STRUCTURES AND THEIR GENERALIZATION, Vol. 2.Florentin Smarandache, Mumtaz Ali & Muhammad Shabir - 2014 - Columbus, OH, USA: Educational Publisher.
    In this book we define some new notions of soft neutrosophic algebraic structures over neutrosophic algebraic structures. We define some different soft neutrosophic algebraic structures but the main motivation is two-fold. Firstly the classes of soft neutrosophic group ring and soft neutrosophic semigroup ring defined in this book is basically the generalization of two classes of rings: neutrosophic group rings and neutrosophic semigroup rings. These soft neutrosophic group rings and soft neutrosophic semigroup rings are defined over neutrosophic group rings and (...)
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    Neutrosophic quadruple algebraic hyperstructures.A. A. A. Agboola, B. Davvaz & Florentin Smarandache - 2017 - Annals of Fuzzy Mathematics and Informatics 14.
    The objective of this paper is to develop neutrosophic quadruple algebraic hyperstructures. Specifically, we develop neutrosophic quadruple semihypergroups, neutrosophic quadruple canonical hypergroups and neutrosophic quadruple hyperrings and we present elementary properties which characterize them.
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