Results for 'Math'

161 found
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  1. Maths, Logic and Language.Tetsuaki Iwamoto - 2018 - Geneva: Logic Forum.
    A work on the philosophy of mathematics (2017) -/- ‘Number’, such a simple idea, and yet it fascinated and absorbed the greatest proportion of human geniuses over centuries, not to mention the likes of Pythagoras, Euclid, Newton, Leibniz, Descartes and countless maths giants like Euler, Gauss and Hilbert, etc.. Einstein thought of pure maths as the poetry of logical ideas, the exactitude of which, although independent of experience, strangely seems to benefit the study of the objects of reality. And, interestingly (...)
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  2. Schizo‐Math.Simon Duffy - 2004 - Angelaki 9 (3):199 – 215.
    In the paper “Math Anxiety,” Aden Evens explores the manner by means of which concepts are implicated in the problematic Idea according to the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze. The example that Evens draws from Difference and Repetition in order to demonstrate this relation is a mathematics problem, the elements of which are the differentials of the differential calculus. What I would like to offer in the present paper is an historical account of the mathematical problematic that Deleuze deploys in (...)
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  3. MODERN SCIENCE EMPHASIZES MATHEMATICS. WHAT THE UNIVERSE LOOKS LIKE WHEN LOGIC IS EMPHASIZED (MATHS HAS A VITAL, BUT SECONDARY, ROLE IN THIS ARTICLE).Rodney Bartlett - 2013 - viXra.
    This article had its start with another article, concerned with measuring the speed of gravitational waves - "The Measurement of the Light Deflection from Jupiter: Experimental Results" by Ed Fomalont and Sergei Kopeikin (2003) - The Astrophysical Journal 598 (1): 704–711. This starting-point led to many other topics that required explanation or naturally seemed to follow on – Unification of gravity with electromagnetism and the 2 nuclear forces, Speed of electromagnetic waves, Energy of cosmic rays and UHECRs, Digital string theory, (...)
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  4. Follow the Math!: The Mathematics of Quantum Mechanics as the Mathematics of Set Partitions Linearized to (Hilbert) Vector Spaces.David Ellerman - 2022 - Foundations of Physics 52 (5):1-40.
    The purpose of this paper is to show that the mathematics of quantum mechanics is the mathematics of set partitions linearized to vector spaces, particularly in Hilbert spaces. That is, the math of QM is the Hilbert space version of the math to describe objective indefiniteness that at the set level is the math of partitions. The key analytical concepts are definiteness versus indefiniteness, distinctions versus indistinctions, and distinguishability versus indistinguishability. The key machinery to go from indefinite (...)
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  5. Why Math is Transcendental.James Sirois - manuscript
    This article proposes a brief argument for why mathematics is transcendental in so far as the concept of infinity emerges from it; this ultimately relies on the understanding that math gives a metaphysical justification for non-existence or "0".
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  6. The math is not the territory: navigating the free energy principle.Mel Andrews - 2021 - Biology and Philosophy 36 (3):1-19.
    Much has been written about the free energy principle (FEP), and much misunderstood. The principle has traditionally been put forth as a theory of brain function or biological self-organisation. Critiques of the framework have focused on its lack of empirical support and a failure to generate concrete, falsifiable predictions. I take both positive and negative evaluations of the FEP thus far to have been largely in error, and appeal to a robust literature on scientific modelling to rectify the situation. A (...)
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  7. Formalism, History & Reflections: Math & Logic (translated).Jesús Aparicio de Soto - 2022 - ResearchGate GmbH.
    Developments in the realm of formal sciences and math foundations during the twentieth century were marked by important methodological advances. Such new approaches partialy owe their appearance to the abandonment of the previous paradigm. To identify how this transition occured, in this essay we observe some aspects regarding the works of Gödel and Tarski, who, under a certain interpretations, restructure epistemological bases of math's formalisms. It'll be argued that the theoretical variabilities produced in abstract sciences upon weakening previous (...)
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  8. Math can’t Move Matter.Seungbae Park - 2024 - Metaphysica 1 (1):1-14.
    Causal platonism asserts that mathematical objects cause neural states in human brains. I raise the following four objections to it. (i) Quantum entanglement does not show that one object can causally affect another, although one is nontemporal, nonspatial, and unchanging. (ii) Causal platonism can neither be justified a posteriori nor a priori. (iii) To postulate mathematical media to flesh out mathematical causation is to multiply mysteries beyond necessity. (iv) To say that mathematical causation is unintelligible and inexplicable is not to (...)
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  9.  86
    MATH HAS ONLY ONE LANGUAGE.Albert Efimov - manuscript
    Sber Science Award 2023 winner in the “Digital Universe” category, full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Head of the Chair of Computational Technology and Modeling of the Department of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics of Moscow State University, Director of the Marchuk Institute for Computational Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Sciences Evgeny Evgenyevich Tyrtyshnikov dedicated his lecture entitled “Dimension: Is it a curse or a blessing?” to methods of presentation of multi-dimensional data based (...)
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  10. Math by Pure Thinking: R First and the Divergence of Measures in Hegel's Philosophy of Mathematics.Ralph M. Kaufmann & Christopher Yeomans - 2017 - European Journal of Philosophy 25 (4):985-1020.
    We attribute three major insights to Hegel: first, an understanding of the real numbers as the paradigmatic kind of number ; second, a recognition that a quantitative relation has three elements, which is embedded in his conception of measure; and third, a recognition of the phenomenon of divergence of measures such as in second-order or continuous phase transitions in which correlation length diverges. For ease of exposition, we will refer to these three insights as the R First Theory, Tripartite Relations, (...)
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  11. Lucky Math: Anti-luck Epistemology and Necessary Truth.Danilo Suster - 2017 - In Bojan Borstner Smiljana Gartner (ed.), Thought Experiments between Nature and Society. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. pp. 119-133.
    How to accommodate the possibility of lucky true beliefs in necessary (or armchair) truths within contemporary modal epistemology? According to safety accounts luck consists in the modal proximity of a false belief, but a belief in a true mathematical proposition could not easily be false because a proposition believed could never be false. According to Miščević modal stability of a true belief under small changes in the world is not enough, stability under small changes in the cognizer should also (and (...)
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  12. Re-reading Wilczek’s remark on “Lost in Math”: The perils of postempirical science and their resolution.Victor Christianto & Florentin Smarandache - manuscript
    Sabine Hossenfelder’s recent book “Lost in Math” has attracted numerous responses, including by notable physicists such as Frank Wilczek. In this article we focus on Wilczek’s remark on that book, in particular on the perils of postempirical science. We also discuss shortly multiverse hypothesis from philosophical perspective. In last section, we offer a resolution from the perspective of Neutrosophic Logic on this problem of classical tension between mathematics and experience approach to physics, which seems to cause the stagnation of (...)
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  13.  65
    Dissertation Abstract - Math Over Mechanism: Proposing the Rational-Relational Theory of Scientific Explanation in Light of Impinging Constraints of New Mechanism.Jenny Nielsen - forthcoming - In ProQuest.
    In this dissertation I achieve the following: (1) I present motivating criteria for a general comprehensive theory of scientific explanation. I review historical approaches to modeling explanation in light of these criteria. (2) I present New Mechanist Explanation ("NME") as the leading candidate for a contemporary, complete theory of scientific explanation. (3) I present constraints on the applicability of New Mechanism in modeling biology, chemistry, and physics. I argue for the unsuitability of NME as a candidate for a general theory (...)
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  14. Doing the Math: Comparing Ontario and Singapore Mathematics Curriculum at the Primary Level.Dieu Trang Hoang - 2020 - Dissertation, Brock University
    This paper sought to investigate the fundamental differences in mathematics education through a comparison of curriculum of 2 countries—Singapore and Canada (as represented by Ontario)—in order to discover what the Ontario education system may learn from Singapore in terms of mathematics education. Mathematics curriculum were collected for Grades 1 to 8 for Ontario, and the equivalent in Singapore. The 2 curriculums were textually analyzed based on both the original and the revised Bloom’s taxonomy to expose their foci. The difference in (...)
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  15.  54
    Reflection of the mathematical dimension of gambling in iGaming online content - A qualitative analysis: The usage of key math terms - Technical report no. 6.Catalin Barboianu - 2024 - Philscience.
    The current report presents results of the qualitative analysis of the usage of the key math terms in the content of the reviewed websites in the current sample, with emphasis on the necessary distinctions for the word and concept of ‘odds’. Patterns, motivations, conceptual and contextual aspects of the usage are discussed. The theoretical norms of adequacy of this usage in the context of gambling are briefly presented. -/- Technical report of the research project 'Reflection of the mathematical dimension (...)
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  16. Problem-Solving Performance and Subject Preference: Math Avoidance among Filipino Elementary Preservice Teachers.Jupeth Pentang, Ronalyn Bautista, Jairus Pentang, Edwin Ibañez & Mary Jane Gamozo - 2023 - Journal of Research, Policy and Practice of Teachers and Teacher Education 13 (1):89-102.
    Elementary preservice teachers (EPTs) substantially impact the quality of mathematics education, and their subject preference and problem-solving performance are essential indicators of their readiness to teach. The study described EPTs’ subject preference and problem-solving performance. Through a sequential explanatory research design, the quantitative inquiry involved 125 random samples, while the qualitative inquiry was participated by 30 non-random samples. Data were obtained by using an online survey and conferencing. Quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive statistics and analysis of variance, whereas qualitative (...)
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  17. The Cyrenaics and Gorgias on Language. Sextus, Math. 7. 196-198.Ugo Zilioli - 2013 - Akademia Verlag.
    In this paper I offer a reconstruction of the account of meaning and language the Cyrenaics appear to have defended on the basis of a famous passage of Sextus, as well as showing the philosophical parentage of that account.
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  18. solutions in the origins of Math.Paul Bali - manuscript
    i. a poetic solution of the Goldbach Conjecture; ii. several responses to the Epimenides Paradox; iii. the volitional solution to Russell's Paradox.
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  19. Astronomy, Geometry, and Logic, Rev. 1c: An ontological proof of the natural principles that enable and sustain reality and mathematics.Michael Lucas Monterey & Michael Lucas-Monterey - manuscript
    The latest draft (posted 05/14/22) of this short, concise work of proof, theory, and metatheory provides summary meta-proofs and verification of the work and results presented in the Theory and Metatheory of Atemporal Primacy and Riemann, Metatheory, and Proof. In this version, several new and revised definitions of terms were added to subsection SS.1; and many corrected equations, theorems, metatheorems, proofs, and explanations are included in the main text. The body of the text is approximately 18 pages, with 3 sections; (...)
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  20. Contingentism in Metaphysics.Kristie Miller - 2010 - Philosophy Compass 5 (11):965-977.
    In a lot of domains in metaphysics the tacit assumption has been that whichever metaphysical principles turn out to be true, these will be necessarily true. Let us call necessitarianism about some domain the thesis that the right metaphysics of that domain is necessary. Necessitarianism has flourished. In the philosophy of maths we find it held that if mathematical objects exist, then they do of necessity. Mathematical Platonists affirm the necessary existence of mathematical objects (see for instance Hale and Wright (...)
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  21. Jury Theorems for Peer Review.Marcus Arvan, Liam Kofi Bright & Remco Heesen - forthcoming - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science.
    Peer review is often taken to be the main form of quality control on academic research. Usually journals carry this out. However, parts of maths and physics appear to have a parallel, crowd-sourced model of peer review, where papers are posted on the arXiv to be publicly discussed. In this paper we argue that crowd-sourced peer review is likely to do better than journal-solicited peer review at sorting papers by quality. Our argument rests on two key claims. First, crowd-sourced peer (...)
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  22. How Philosophers Have Influenced the Way You Think About Race.Jennifer Mensch & Michael J. Olson - 2023 - Futurumcareers.Com.
    Problematic perceptions about race damage our society. These attitudes can seem impossible to overcome, but philosophers Dr Jennifer Mensch, at Western Sydney University in Australia, and Dr Michael Olson, at Marquette University in the US, beg to differ. They are compiling a collection of 18th-century philosophical and scientific texts that helped shape the way people saw race across the Western world, and were used to justify colonisation. They believe that by exposing these historical roots of racism, opportunities to improve societal (...)
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  23. Ironic Metaphor Interpretation.Mihaela Popa - 2010 - Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 33:1-17.
    This paper examines the mechanisms involved in the interpretation of utterances that are both metaphorical and ironical. For example, when uttering 'He's a real number-cruncher' about a total illiterate in maths, the speaker uses a metaphor with an ironic intent. I argue that in such cases both logically and psychologically, the metaphor is prior to irony. I hold that the phenomenon is then one of ironic metaphor, which puts a metaphorical meaning to ironic use, rather than an irony used metaphorically (...)
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  24. Evaluation of a student-oriented logic course.Aaron Thomas-Bolduc & Richard Zach - 2018 - ISSOTL 2018 Annual Meeting.
    In Winter 2017, the first author piloted a course in formal logic in which we aimed to (a) improve student engagement and mastery of the content, and (b) reduce maths anxiety and its negative effects on student outcomes, by adopting student oriented teaching including peer instruction and classroom flipping techniques. The course implemented a partially flipped approach, and incorporated group-work and peer learning elements, while retaining some of the traditional lecture format. By doing this, a wide variety of student learning (...)
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  25. Towards Pedagogy supporting Ethics in Analysis.Marie Oldfield - 2022 - Journal of Humanistic Mathematics 12 (2).
    Over the past few years we have seen an increasing number of legal proceedings related to inappropriately implemented technology. At the same time career paths have diverged from the foundation of statistics out to Data Scientist, Machine Learning and AI. All of these new branches being fundamentally branches of statistics and mathematics. This has meant that formal training has struggled to keep up with what is required in the plethora of new roles. Mathematics as a taught subject is still based (...)
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  26. Mathematical Nature of Gravity, Which General Relativity Says is Space-Time : Topology Unites With the Matrix, E=mc2, Advanced Waves, Wick Rotation, Dark Matter & Higher Dimensions.Rodney Bartlett - manuscript
    General Relativity says gravity is a push caused by space-time's curvature. Combining General Relativity with E=mc2 results in distances being totally deleted from space-time/gravity by future technology, and in expansion or contraction of the universe as a whole being eliminated. The road to these conclusions has branches shining light on supersymmetry and superconductivity. This push of gravitational waves may be directed from intergalactic space towards galaxy centres, helping to hold galaxies together and also creating supermassive black holes. Together with the (...)
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  27. Analytical dialectic and basic physics.Arnoud van Thiel - 1962 - The Hague: L. J. C. Boucher.
    A philosophical system that aims to explain the structure of nature from the perspective of the framework of human consciousness, and thus the foundations of mathematics and physics.
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  28. Effect of cognitive restructuring on junior secondary school mathematics text anxiety in Oshimili south of L.G.A of Delta State.A. N. Anyamene & G. U. Ogugua - 2019 - Hofa: African Journal of Multidisciplinary Research 4 (1):2019.
    The study investigated the effect of cognitive restructuring on junior secondary school mathematics test anxiety in Oshimili south L.G.A of Delta State. Two research questions and two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. Quasi-experimental research design was adopted for this study. The population for this study was a total of 1224 students. These comprised of all the JSS 2 students from Oshimili South Local Government Area of Delta State. Research sample consisted of 120 JSS 2 students (...)
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  29. A BRIEF OUTLINE OF THE POSSIBLE BASICS OF COSMOLOGY IN THE 22nd CENTURY, AND WHAT IT MEANS FOR RELIGION.Rodney Bartlett - manuscript
    This article’s conclusion is that the theories of Einstein are generally correct and will still be relevant in the next century (there will be modifications necessary for development of quantum gravity). Those Einsteinian theories are Special Relativity, General Relativity, and the title of a paper he published in 1919 which asked if gravitation plays a role in the composition of elementary particles of matter. This paper was the bridge between General Relativity and the Unified Field Theory he sought during the (...)
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  30. Thoughts on Artificial Intelligence and the Origin of Life Resulting from General Relativity, with Neo-Darwinist Reference to Human Evolution and Mathematical Reference to Cosmology.Rodney Bartlett - manuscript
    When this article was first planned, writing was going to be exclusively about two things - the origin of life and human evolution. But it turned out to be out of the question for the author to restrict himself to these biological and anthropological topics. A proper understanding of them required answering questions like “What is the nature of the universe – the home of life – and how did it originate?”, “How can time travel be removed from fantasy and (...)
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  31. STRINGS ARE BINARY DIGITS WHOSE CURRENTS IN TWO 2-D MOBIUS LOOPS PRODUCE A 4-D FIGURE-8 KLEIN BOTTLE THAT COMPOSES EACH OF THE SUBUNIVERSES IN THE ONE UNIVERSE.Rodney Bartlett - 2013 - Vixra.Org (Category - Quantum Gravity and String Theory).
    The strings of physics’ string theory are the binary digits of 1 and 0 used in computers and electronics. The digits are constantly switching between their representations of the “on” and “off” states. This switching is usually referred to as a flow or current. Currents in the two 2-dimensional programs called Mobius loops are connected into a four-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottle by the infinitely-long irrational and transcendental numbers. Such an infinite connection translates - via bosons being ultimately composed of 1’s (...)
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  32. Mathematics' Poincare Conjecture and The Shape of the Universe.Rodney Bartlett - 2011 - Tomorrow's Science Today.
    intro to Part 1 - -/- Most people disliked mathematics when they were at school and they were absolutely correct to do so. This is because maths as we know it is severely incomplete. No matter how elaborated and complicated mathematical equations become, in today's world they're based on 1+1=2. This certainly conforms to the world our physical senses perceive and to the world scientific instruments detect. It has been of immeasurable value to all knowledge throughout history and has elevated (...)
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  33. A Revived Sāṃkhyayoga Tradition in Modern India.Marzenna Jakubczak - 2020 - Studia Religiologica 53 (2):105-118.
    This paper discusses the phenomenon of Kāpil Maṭh (Madhupur, India), a Sāṃkhyayoga āśrama founded in the early twentieth century by the charismatic Bengali scholar-monk Swāmi Hariharānanda Ᾱraṇya (1869–1947). While referring to Hariharānanda’s writings I will consider the idea of the re-establishment of an extinct spiritual lineage. I shall specify the criteria for identity of this revived Sāṃkhyayoga tradition by explaining why and on what assumptions the modern reinterpretation of this school can be perceived as continuation of the thought of Patañjali (...)
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  34. Let the Little Children Come - Newborns Contain Intuitive Version of Physics' Unified Theory.Bartlett Rodney - 2017 - Vixra.Org (Free Forums).
    In his book "A Brief History of Time", Stephen Hawking says "If a complete unified theory was discovered, it would only be a matter of time before it was digested and simplified - and taught in schools, at least in outline. We should then all be able to have some understanding of the laws that govern the universe and are responsible for our existence." If complete, a unified theory would be physical and embrace all the space, matter and time of (...)
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  35. 473959 - the making of a messiah.Colin Hannaford (ed.) - 2006 - Trafford.
    -/- Only this experience … -/- Thirty years ago a young British soldier found himself in a conflict in which Christians were killing Christians. When he protested that involving the Army would provoke more violence from both sides, his government ordered him into a military psychiatric hospital, to be treated - on arrival - for schizophrenia. Instead, the hospital staff found him perfectly sane. Meanwhile, under their observation, he had a spectacular spiritual experience. He had previously decided that God is (...)
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  36. Proofs are Programs: 19th Century Logic and 21st Century Computing.Philip Wadler - manuscript
    As the 19th century drew to a close, logicians formalized an ideal notion of proof. They were driven by nothing other than an abiding interest in truth, and their proofs were as ethereal as the mind of God. Yet within decades these mathematical abstractions were realized by the hand of man, in the digital stored-program computer. How it came to be recognized that proofs and programs are the same thing is a story that spans a century, a chase with as (...)
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  37. Ilusion of Losing (A Ilusão da Verdade).Mota Victor - manuscript
    somehow, an ilusion can be the path to a surprinsingly truth about yourself.
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  38. Creative Thinking and Problem-Solving: Can Preservice Teachers Think Creatively and Solve Statistics Problems?Leslie B. Bacangallo, Roshell T. Buella, Kristine Y. Rentasan, Jupeth Pentang & Ronalyn Bautista - 2022 - Studies in Technology and Education 1 (1):14-27.
    Math prospective teachers must be able to think creatively and solve problems. The study looked into preservice teachers’ creative thinking and problem-solving abilities in statistics. The investigation was guided by a correlational design in a public university in the Philippines. Stratified random sampling was used to select the 103 study participants from two teacher education programs. Through google forms, data were collected using Torrance et al. (2008)’s tests of creative thinking and researcher-made statistics problem test. The findings revealed that (...)
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  39. Σ01 soundness isn’t enough: Number theoretic indeterminacy’s unsavory physical commitments.Sharon Berry - 2023 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 74 (2):469-484.
    It’s sometimes suggested that we can (in a sense) settle the truth-value of some statements in the language of number theory by stipulation, adopting either φ or ¬φ as an additional axiom. For example, in Clarke-Doane (2020b) and a series of recent APA presentations, Clarke-Doane suggests that any Σ01 sound expansion of our current arithmetical practice would express a truth. In this paper, I’ll argue that (given a certain popular assumption about the model-theoretic representability of languages like ours) we can’t (...)
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  40. Universal Yearning for Understanding.Venkata Rayudu Posina & Shankar - manuscript
    Math literacy is miniscule compared to the near universal language literacy of mother tongues. Our search for the root cause of this undesirable human condition led us to: Grammar (or the abstract essence) of a language. Language learning begins with grammar, unless the language happens to be mathematics, which is unique in not even considering including the grammar (abstract general/theory) of mathematics in the mathematical pedagogy. Here we make a case for introducing the abstract essence of mathematics--Conceptual Mathematics--in high (...)
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  41. Short Note on Unification of Field Equations and Probability.Mesut Kavak - manuscript
    Is math in harmony with existence? Is it possible to calculate any property of existence over math? Is exact proof of something possible without pre-acceptance of some physical properties? This work is realized to analysis these arguments somehow as simple as possible over short cuts, and it came up with some compatible results finally. It seems that both free space and moving bodies in this space are dependent on the same rule as there is no alternative, and the (...)
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  42. The disruptive AlphaGeometry: Is it the beginning of the end of mathematics education?Quan-Hoang Vuong & Manh-Tung Ho - manuscript
    A new AI system, called AlphaGeometry, trained under synthetic data has demonstrated the ability to solve geometric problems at the International Olympiad level. This essay considers the fact that human abilities to learn and do math as well as many other tasks are increasingly augmented with AI. Clearly, smart technologies like AlphaGeometry are redefining a number of concepts and institutions such as learning, schools, education, teacher-student relationships, creativity, etc, which are so fundamental for what we’ve thought of as modern (...)
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  43. Problem-Solving Difficulties, Performance, and Differences among Preservice Teachers in Western Philippines University.Jupeth Pentang, Louina Joana Andrade, Jocelyn Golben, Jonalyn Talua, Ronalyn Bautista, Janina Sercenia, Dian Permatasari, Manuel Bucad Jr & Mark Donnel Viernes - 2024 - Palawan Scientist 16 (1):58-68.
    The ability to solve problems is a prerequisite in preparing mathematics preservice teachers. This study assessed preservice teachers’ problem-solving difficulties and performance, particularly in worded problems on number sense, measurement, geometry, algebra, and probability. Also, academic profile differences in the preservice teacher’s problem-solving performance and common errors were determined. A descriptive-comparative research design was employed with 158 random respondents. Data were gathered face-to-face during the first semester of the school year 2022-2023, and data were analyzed with the aid of jamovi (...)
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  44. Mindset and Levels of Conceptual Understanding in the Problem-Solving of Preservice Mathematics Teachers in an Online Learning Environment.Ma Luisa Mariano-Dolesh, Leila Collantes, Edwin Ibañez & Jupeth Pentang - 2022 - International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research 21 (6):18-33.
    Mindset plays a vital role in tackling the barriers to improving the preservice mathematics teachers’ (PMTs) conceptual understanding of problem-solving. As the COVID-19 pandemic has continued to pose a challenge, online learning has been adopted. This led this study to determining the PMTs’ mindset and level of conceptual understanding in problem-solving in an online learning environment utilising Google Classroom and the Khan Academy. A quantitative research design was employed specifically utilising a descriptive, comparative, and correlational design. Forty-five PMTs were chosen (...)
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  45. Operator Counterparts of Types of Reasoning.Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska - 2023 - Logica Universalis 17 (4):511-528.
    Logical and philosophical literature provides different classifications of reasoning. In the Polish literature on the subject, for instance, there are three popular ones accepted by representatives of the Lvov-Warsaw School: Jan Łukasiewicz, Tadeusz Czeżowski and Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz (Ajdukiewicz in Logika pragmatyczna [Pragmatic Logic]. PWN, Warsaw (1965, 2nd ed. 1974). Translated as: Pragmatic Logic. Reidel & PWN, Dordrecht, 1975). The author of this paper, having modified those classifications, distinguished the following types of reasoning: (1) deductive and (2) non-deductive, and additionally two (...)
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  46. Omission impossible.Sara Bernstein - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (10):2575-2589.
    This paper gives a framework for understanding causal counterpossibles, counterfactuals imbued with causal content whose antecedents appeal to metaphysically impossible worlds. Such statements are generated by omissive causal claims that appeal to metaphysically impossible events, such as “If the mathematician had not failed to prove that 2+2=5, the math textbooks would not have remained intact.” After providing an account of impossible omissions, the paper argues for three claims: (i) impossible omissions play a causal role in the actual world, (ii) (...)
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  47.  78
    The Heart is a Dustboard.Jenny L. Nielsen - 2010 - Sosland Journal 2010 (2010).
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  48. Probability without Tears.Julia Staffel - 2023 - Teaching Philosophy 46 (1):65-84.
    This paper is about teaching probability to students of philosophy who don’t aim to do primarily formal work in their research. These students are unlikely to seek out classes about probability or formal epistemology for various reasons, for example because they don’t realize that this knowledge would be useful for them or because they are intimidated by the material. However, most areas of philosophy now contain debates that incorporate probability, and basic knowledge of it is essential even for philosophers whose (...)
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  49. Problem-Solving Performance and Skills of Prospective Elementary Teachers in Northern Philippines.Jupeth Pentang, Edwin D. Ibañez, Gener Subia, Jaynelle G. Domingo, Analyn M. Gamit & Lorinda E. Pascual - 2021 - Hunan Daxue Xuebao 48 (1):122-132.
    The study determined the problem-solving performance and skills of prospective elementary teachers (PETs) in the Northern Philippines. Specifically, it defined the PETs’ level of problem-solving performance in number sense, measurement, geometry, algebra, and probability; significant predictors of their problem-solving performance in terms of sex, socio-economic status, parents’ educational attainment, high school graduated from and subject preference; and their problem-solving skills. The PETs’ problem-solving performance was determined by a problem set consisting of word problems with number sense, measurement, geometry, algebra, and (...)
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  50. Lecture Notes On Eric Schmid's "Prospectus to a Homotopic Metatheory of Language".Jack Kahn - manuscript
    Lecture Notes On Eric Schmid's "Prospectus to a Homotopic Metatheory of Language" Presented at the Book Release Event at Triest Gallery (NYC) on January 19, 2024 -/- Prospectus to a Homotopic Metatheory of Language by Eric Schmid proposes that mathematics does not involve the discovery of a synthetic a priori. In other words, mathematics is not a stable transcendent object of knowledge. Instead, Schmid defines math as a language that depends on an infinitely large network topology of inferences. Importantly, (...)
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