Results for 'Nested calculi'

410 found
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  1. On the Correspondence between Nested Calculi and Semantic Systems for Intuitionistic Logics.Tim Lyon - 2021 - Journal of Logic and Computation 31 (1):213-265.
    This paper studies the relationship between labelled and nested calculi for propositional intuitionistic logic, first-order intuitionistic logic with non-constant domains and first-order intuitionistic logic with constant domains. It is shown that Fitting’s nested calculi naturally arise from their corresponding labelled calculi—for each of the aforementioned logics—via the elimination of structural rules in labelled derivations. The translational correspondence between the two types of systems is leveraged to show that the nested calculi inherit proof-theoretic properties (...)
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  2. On Deriving Nested Calculi for Intuitionistic Logics from Semantic Systems.Tim Lyon - 2013 - In Sergei Artemov & Anil Nerode (eds.), Logical Foundations of Computer Science (Lecture Notes in Computer Science 7734). Springer. pp. 177-194.
    This paper shows how to derive nested calculi from labelled calculi for propositional intuitionistic logic and first-order intuitionistic logic with constant domains, thus connecting the general results for labelled calculi with the more refined formalism of nested sequents. The extraction of nested calculi from labelled calculi obtains via considerations pertaining to the elimination of structural rules in labelled derivations. Each aspect of the extraction process is motivated and detailed, showing that each (...) calculus inherits favorable proof-theoretic properties from its associated labelled calculus. (shrink)
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  3. Syntactic Interpolation for Tense Logics and Bi-Intuitionistic Logic via Nested Sequents.Tim Lyon, Alwen Tiu, Rajeev Gore & Ranald Clouston - 2020 - In Maribel Fernandez & Anca Muscholl (eds.), 28th EACSL Annual Conference on Computer Science Logic (CSL 2020). pp. 1-16.
    We provide a direct method for proving Craig interpolation for a range of modal and intuitionistic logics, including those containing a "converse" modality. We demonstrate this method for classical tense logic, its extensions with path axioms, and for bi-intuitionistic logic. These logics do not have straightforward formalisations in the traditional Gentzen-style sequent calculus, but have all been shown to have cut-free nested sequent calculi. The proof of the interpolation theorem uses these calculi and is purely syntactic, without (...)
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  4. Automating Reasoning with Standpoint Logic via Nested Sequents.Tim Lyon & Lucía Gómez Álvarez - 2018 - In Michael Thielscher, Francesca Toni & Frank Wolter (eds.), Proceedings of the Sixteenth International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR2018). pp. 257-266.
    Standpoint logic is a recently proposed formalism in the context of knowledge integration, which advocates a multi-perspective approach permitting reasoning with a selection of diverse and possibly conflicting standpoints rather than forcing their unification. In this paper, we introduce nested sequent calculi for propositional standpoint logics---proof systems that manipulate trees whose nodes are multisets of formulae---and show how to automate standpoint reasoning by means of non-deterministic proof-search algorithms. To obtain worst-case complexity-optimal proof-search, we introduce a novel technique in (...)
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  5. Refining Labelled Systems for Modal and Constructive Logics with Applications.Tim Lyon - 2021 - Dissertation, Technischen Universität Wien
    This thesis introduces the "method of structural refinement", which serves as a means of transforming the relational semantics of a modal and/or constructive logic into an 'economical' proof system by connecting two proof-theoretic paradigms: labelled and nested sequent calculi. The formalism of labelled sequents has been successful in that cut-free calculi in possession of desirable proof-theoretic properties can be automatically generated for large classes of logics. Despite these qualities, labelled systems make use of a complicated syntax that (...)
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  6. Modeling the interaction of computer errors by four-valued contaminating logics.Roberto Ciuni, Thomas Macaulay Ferguson & Damian Szmuc - 2019 - In Rosalie Iemhoff, Michael Moortgat & Ruy de Queiroz (eds.), Logic, Language, Information, and Computation. Folli Publications on Logic, Language and Information. pp. 119-139.
    Logics based on weak Kleene algebra (WKA) and related structures have been recently proposed as a tool for reasoning about flaws in computer programs. The key element of this proposal is the presence, in WKA and related structures, of a non-classical truth-value that is “contaminating” in the sense that whenever the value is assigned to a formula ϕ, any complex formula in which ϕ appears is assigned that value as well. Under such interpretations, the contaminating states represent occurrences of a (...)
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  7. Labeled calculi and finite-valued logics.Matthias Baaz, Christian G. Fermüller, Gernot Salzer & Richard Zach - 1998 - Studia Logica 61 (1):7-33.
    A general class of labeled sequent calculi is investigated, and necessary and sufficient conditions are given for when such a calculus is sound and complete for a finite -valued logic if the labels are interpreted as sets of truth values. Furthermore, it is shown that any finite -valued logic can be given an axiomatization by such a labeled calculus using arbitrary "systems of signs," i.e., of sets of truth values, as labels. The number of labels needed is logarithmic in (...)
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  8. Automating Agential Reasoning: Proof-Calculi and Syntactic Decidability for STIT Logics.Tim Lyon & Kees van Berkel - 2019 - In M. Baldoni, M. Dastani, B. Liao, Y. Sakurai & R. Zalila Wenkstern (eds.), PRIMA 2019: Principles and Practice of Multi-Agent Systems. Springer. pp. 202-218.
    This work provides proof-search algorithms and automated counter-model extraction for a class of STIT logics. With this, we answer an open problem concerning syntactic decision procedures and cut-free calculi for STIT logics. A new class of cut-free complete labelled sequent calculi G3LdmL^m_n, for multi-agent STIT with at most n-many choices, is introduced. We refine the calculi G3LdmL^m_n through the use of propagation rules and demonstrate the admissibility of their structural rules, resulting in auxiliary calculi Ldm^m_nL. In (...)
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  9. Nested Sequents for Intuitionistic Modal Logics via Structural Refinement.Tim Lyon - 2021 - In Anupam Das & Sara Negri (eds.), Automated Reasoning with Analytic Tableaux and Related Methods: TABLEAUX 2021. pp. 409-427.
    We employ a recently developed methodology -- called "structural refinement" -- to extract nested sequent systems for a sizable class of intuitionistic modal logics from their respective labelled sequent systems. This method can be seen as a means by which labelled sequent systems can be transformed into nested sequent systems through the introduction of propagation rules and the elimination of structural rules, followed by a notational translation. The nested systems we obtain incorporate propagation rules that are parameterized (...)
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  10. The Basics of Display Calculi.Tim Lyon, Christian Ittner, Timo Eckhardt & Norbert Gratzl - 2017 - Kriterion - Journal of Philosophy 31 (2):55-100.
    The aim of this paper is to introduce and explain display calculi for a variety of logics. We provide a survey of key results concerning such calculi, though we focus mainly on the global cut elimination theorem. Propositional, first-order, and modal display calculi are considered and their properties detailed.
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  11. Cut-free Calculi and Relational Semantics for Temporal STIT Logics.Tim Lyon & Kees van Berkel - 2019 - In Francesco Calimeri, Nicola Leone & Marco Manna (eds.), Logics in Artificial Intelligence. Springer. pp. 803 - 819.
    We present cut-free labelled sequent calculi for a central formalism in logics of agency: STIT logics with temporal operators. These include sequent systems for Ldm , Tstit and Xstit. All calculi presented possess essential structural properties such as contraction- and cut-admissibility. The labelled calculi G3Ldm and G3Tstit are shown sound and complete relative to irreflexive temporal frames. Additionally, we extend current results by showing that also Xstit can be characterized through relational frames, omitting the use of BT+AC (...)
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  12. Nestes Modes, ’Qua’ and the Incarnation.Alexander R. Pruss - 2014 - European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 6 (2):65--80.
    A nested mode ontology allows one to make sense of apparently contradictory Christological claims such as that Christ knows everything and there are some things Christ does not know.
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  13. Nested Dissection for Sparse Null-Space Bases.Julio Michael Stern & Stephen Vavasis - 1993 - SIAM Journal of Matrix Analysis and Applications 14:766-775.
    The authors propose a nested dissection approach to finding a fundamental cycle basis in a planar graph. The cycle basis corresponds to a fundamental null-space basis of the adjacency matrix. This problem is meant to model sparse null-space basis computations occurring in a variety of settings. An O(n3/2) bound is achieved on the nullspace basis size (i.e., the number of nonzero entries in the basis), and an O(n log n) bound on the size in the special case of grid (...)
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  14. Nesting Polybia rejecta (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) Associated with Azteca chartifex Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Ecotone Caatinga/Atlantic Forest, in the State of Rio Grande do Norte.Francisco Virgínio - 2015 - Entomobrasillis 8 (3).
    Some neotropical social wasps which are associated with some vertebrates and other insects like ants, and these interactions are reported for decades, but little is known about the presence of these in the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest. This study describes the first association’s record between nests of Polybia rejecta (Fabricius) wasp and Azteca chartifex Forel ants in the transition area of the Atlantic Forest and Caatinga in Rio Grande do Norte. The observations were in a private forest in Monte Alegre, (...)
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  15. Beyond semantic pollution: Towards a practice-based philosophical analysis of labelled calculi.Fabio De Martin Polo - forthcoming - Erkenntnis.
    This paper challenges the negative attitudes towards labelled proof systems, usually referred to as semantic pollution, by arguing that such critiques overlook the full potential of labelled calculi. The overarching objective is to develop a practice-based philosophical analysis of labelled calculi to provide insightful considerations regarding their proof-theoretic and philosophical value. To achieve this, successful applications of labelled calculi and related results will be showcased, and comparisons with other relevant works will be discussed. The paper ends by (...)
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  16. A Road Map of Interval Temporal Logics and Duration Calculi.Valentin Goranko, Angelo Montanari & Guido Sciavicco - 2004 - Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 14 (1-2):9-54.
    We survey main developments, results, and open problems on interval temporal logics and duration calculi. We present various formal systems studied in the literature and discuss their distinctive features, emphasizing on expressiveness, axiomatic systems, and (un)decidability results.
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  17. Humean Laws and (Nested) Counterfactuals.Christian Loew & Siegfried Jaag - 2019 - Philosophical Quarterly 70 (278):93-113.
    Humean reductionism about laws of nature is the view that the laws reduce to the total distribution of non-modal or categorical properties in spacetime. A worry about Humean reductionism is that it cannot motivate the characteristic modal resilience of laws under counterfactual suppositions and that it thus generates wrong verdicts about certain nested counterfactuals. In this paper, we defend Humean reductionism by motivating an account of the modal resilience of Humean laws that gets nested counterfactuals right.
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  18. The Dream of Geese Nesting in Trees: An Experiment that Tests an Interpretation.Maxson J. McDowell, Joenine E. Roberts & Nathalie Hausman - manuscript
    In an online, participatory class, we interpreted 'The Dream of Geese Nesting in Trees' knowing nothing of the dreamer beyond age and gender, and having none of the dreamer’s associations. Our interpretation included predictions about the dreamer. When it was complete, we asked the bringer of the dream (who had until then been mostly silent and who also gave no visual feedback to our discussion) to give us more information about the dreamer. Our main predictions were confirmed. Goslings are falling (...)
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  19. Modular labelled calculi for relevant logics.Fabio De Martin Polo - 2023 - Australasian Journal of Logic 20 (1):47-87.
    In this article, we perform a detailed proof theoretic investigation of a wide number of relevant logics by employing the well-established methodology of labelled sequent calculi to build our intended systems. At the semantic level, we will characterise relevant logics by employing reduced Routley-Meyer models, namely, relational structures with a ternary relation between worlds along with a unique distinct element considered as the real (or actual) world. This paper realizes the idea of building a variety of modular labelled (...) by reflecting, at the syntactic level, semantic informations taken from reduced Routley-Meyer models. Central results include proofs of soundness and completeness, as well as a proof of cut- admissibility. (shrink)
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  20. Significance Tests, Belief Calculi, and Burden of Proof in Legal and Scientific Discourse.Julio Michael Stern - 2003 - Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence and Applications 101:139-147.
    We review the definition of the Full Bayesian Significance Test (FBST), and summarize its main statistical and epistemological characteristics. We review also the Abstract Belief Calculus (ABC) of Darwiche and Ginsberg, and use it to analyze the FBST’s value of evidence. This analysis helps us understand the FBST properties and interpretation. The definition of value of evidence against a sharp hypothesis, in the FBST setup, was motivated by applications of Bayesian statistical reasoning to legal matters where the sharp hypotheses were (...)
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  21. Translating Metainferences Into Formulae: Satisfaction Operators and Sequent Calculi.Ariel Jonathan Roffé & Federico Pailos - 2021 - Australasian Journal of Logic 3.
    In this paper, we present a way to translate the metainferences of a mixed metainferential system into formulae of an extended-language system, called its associated σ-system. To do this, the σ-system will contain new operators (one for each standard), called the σ operators, which represent the notions of "belonging to a (given) standard". We first prove, in a model-theoretic way, that these translations preserve (in)validity. That is, that a metainference is valid in the base system if and only if its (...)
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  22. Previously unreported nesting associations of Yellow-Olive Flycatcher (Tolmomyias sulphurescens) (Aves: Tyrannidae) with social wasps and bees.João Carnio Teles Menezes, Bruno Corrêa Barbosa & Fábio Prezoto - 2014 - Ornitología Neotropical 25 (3):363–368.
    Previously unreported nesting associations of Yellow-Olive Flycatcher (Tolmomyias sulphurescens) (Aves: Tyrannidae) with social wasps and bees.
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  23. Commentary and Illocutionary Expressions in Linear Calculi of Natural Deduction.Moritz Cordes & Friedrich Reinmuth - 2017 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 26 (2).
    We argue that the need for commentary in commonly used linear calculi of natural deduction is connected to the “deletion” of illocutionary expressions that express the role of propositions as reasons, assumptions, or inferred propositions. We first analyze the formalization of an informal proof in some common calculi which do not formalize natural language illocutionary expressions, and show that in these calculi the formalizations of the example proof rely on commentary devices that have no counterpart in the (...)
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  24. Approximating Propositional Calculi by Finite-valued Logics.Matthias Baaz & Richard Zach - 1994 - In Baaz Matthias & Zach Richard (eds.), 24th International Symposium on Multiple-valued Logic, 1994. Proceedings. IEEE Press. pp. 257–263.
    The problem of approximating a propositional calculus is to find many-valued logics which are sound for the calculus (i.e., all theorems of the calculus are tautologies) with as few tautologies as possible. This has potential applications for representing (computationally complex) logics used in AI by (computationally easy) many-valued logics. It is investigated how far this method can be carried using (1) one or (2) an infinite sequence of many-valued logics. It is shown that the optimal candidate matrices for (1) can (...)
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  25. Variation in nesting behavior of the arboreal ant Camponotus sericeiventris (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).Elisa Furtado Fernandes, Mariana Monteiro de Castro, Bruno Corrêa Barbosa & Fábio Prezoto - 2014 - The Florida Entomologist 97 (3):1237-1239.
    This is the first record of nesting in the soil by the ant Camponotus sericeiventris (Guérin-Méneville, 1838), which has arboreal habit. The study was conducted in southeastern Brazil, in an ant colony located in a subterranean site. This study describes, for the first time, the ability of this arboreal species to vary its nesting site by the occupation of an unusual place in an urban environment; and this study demonstrates that this species is an interesting model for studies in urban (...)
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  26. On the Curious Calculi of Wittgenstein and Spencer Brown.Gregory Landini - 2018 - Journal for the History of Analytical Philosophy 6 (10).
    In his Tractatus, Wittgenstein sets out what he calls his N-operator notation which can be used to calculate whether an expression is a tautology. In his Laws of Form, George Spencer Brown offers what he calls a “primary algebra” for such calculation. Both systems are perplexing. But comparing two blurry images can reduce noise, producing a focus. This paper reveals that Spencer Brown independently rediscovered the quantifier-free part of the N-operator calculus. The comparison sheds a flood light on each and (...)
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  27. Agressive Interactions in Stingless bees: Melipona quadrifasciata (Lepeletier) Invading Nest of Scaptotrigona bipunctata (Lepeletier).Bruno Corrêa Barbosa, Karine Munck Vieira & Fabio Prezoto - 2015 - Entomobrasilis 8 (2):152-154.
    This record describes the occurrence of conflicts between stingless bees of an active colony of Scaptotrigona bipunctata (Lepeletier) and individuals of Melipona quadrifasciata (Lepeletier), and discusses possible hypotheses that motivated the attack. Behaviors were observed in an active colony of S. bipunctata. The active nest guards detained individuals of M. quadrifasciata who invaded the colony. The chances of misidentification of the colony entrance and error in the species possible aggregation were discarded, however, the hypothesis of the real invasion recorded in (...)
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  28. Higher-Order Vagueness and Borderline Nestings: A Persistent Confusion.Susanne Bobzien - 2013 - Analytic Philosophy 54 (1):1-43.
    ABSTRACT: This paper argues that the so-called paradoxes of higher-order vagueness are the result of a confusion between higher-order vagueness and the distribution of the objects of a Sorites series into extensionally non-overlapping non-empty classes.
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  29. Unlocking the Traumatic through the Psychedelic in One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest.Mongia Besbes - 2016 - Journal of Advances in Humanities and Social Sciences 3 (2):156-167.
    This is an attempt to investigate the causal relationship existing between the psychedelic literary genre in fiction and the application of trauma theory in the study of One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest. Trauma theory, which is a psychological theory in essence; has been widely linked to the study of literature since traumatic responses take narrative forms. Scientifically, many studies have proven that the psychedelic trip leads to a deepened exploration of the unconscious tracing latent emotional traumas. Henceforth, I am (...)
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  30. On Minimal Models for Pure Calculi of Names.Piotr Kulicki - 2013 - Logic and Logical Philosophy 22 (4):429–443.
    By pure calculus of names we mean a quantifier-free theory, based on the classical propositional calculus, which defines predicates known from Aristotle’s syllogistic and Leśniewski’s Ontology. For a large fragment of the theory decision procedures, defined by a combination of simple syntactic operations and models in two-membered domains, can be used. We compare the system which employs `ε’ as the only specific term with the system enriched with functors of Syllogistic. In the former, we do not need an empty name (...)
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  31. Halting problem undecidability and infinitely nested simulation (V2).P. Olcott - manuscript
    The halting theorem counter-examples present infinitely nested simulation (non-halting) behavior to every simulating halt decider. Whenever the pure simulation of the input to simulating halt decider H(x,y) never stops running unless H aborts its simulation H correctly aborts this simulation and returns 0 for not halting.
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  32. Halting problem undecidability and infinitely nested simulation.P. Olcott - manuscript
    The halting theorem counter-examples present infinitely nested simulation (non-halting) behavior to every simulating halt decider. The pathological self-reference of the conventional halting problem proof counter-examples is overcome. The halt status of these examples is correctly determined. A simulating halt decider remains in pure simulation mode until after it determines that its input will never reach its final state. This eliminates the conventional feedback loop where the behavior of the halt decider effects the behavior of its input.
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  33. How physics flew the philosophers' nest.Katherine Brading - 2021 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 88 (C):312-20.
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  34. Halting problem undecidability and infinitely nested simulation (V3).P. Olcott - manuscript
    By making a slight refinement to the halt status criterion measure that remains consistent with the original a halt decider may be defined that correctly determines the halt status of the conventional halting problem proof counter-examples. This refinement overcomes the pathological self-reference issue that previously prevented halting decidability.
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  35. Halting problem undecidability and infinitely nested simulation (V5).P. Olcott - manuscript
    This is an explanation of a key new insight into the halting problem provided in the language of software engineering. Technical computer science terms are explained using software engineering terms. -/- To fully understand this paper a software engineer must be an expert in the C programming language, the x86 programming language, exactly how C translates into x86 and what an x86 process emulator is. No knowledge of the halting problem is required.
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  36. Halting problem undecidability and infinitely nested simulation (V4).P. Olcott - manuscript
    A Simulating Halt Decider (SHD) computes the mapping from its input to its own accept or reject state based on whether or not the input simulated by a UTM would reach its final state in a finite number of simulated steps. -/- A halt decider (because it is a decider) must report on the behavior specified by its finite string input. This is its actual behavior when it is simulated by the UTM contained within its simulating halt decider while this (...)
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  37. Fusion, fission, and Ackermann’s truth constant in relevant logics: A proof-theoretic investigation.Fabio De Martin Polo - forthcoming - In Andrew Tedder, Shawn Standefer & Igor Sedlar (eds.), New Directions in Relevant Logic. Springer.
    The aim of this paper is to provide a proof-theoretic characterization of relevant logics including fusion and fission connectives, as well as Ackermann’s truth constant. We achieve this by employing the well-established methodology of labelled sequent calculi. After having introduced several systems, we will conduct a detailed proof-theoretic analysis, show a cut-admissibility theorem, and establish soundness and completeness. The paper ends with a discussion that contextualizes our current work within the broader landscape of the proof theory of relevant logics.
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  38. New Logic and the Seeds of Analytic Philosophy.Kevin C. Klement - 2019 - In John Shand (ed.), A Companion to Nineteenth Century Philosophy (Blackwell Companions to Philosophy). Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 454–479.
    Analytic philosophy has been perhaps the most successful philosophical movement of the twentieth century. While there is no one doctrine that defines it, one of the most salient features of analytic philosophy is its reliance on contemporary logic, the logic that had its origin in the works of George Boole and Gottlob Frege and others in the mid‐to‐late nineteenth century. Boolean algebra, the heart of Boole's contributions to logic, has also come to represent a cornerstone of modern computing. Frege had (...)
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  39. A logic for epistemic two-dimensional semantics.Peter Fritz - 2013 - Synthese 190 (10):1753-1770.
    Epistemic two-dimensional semantics is a theory in the philosophy of language that provides an account of meaning which is sensitive to the distinction between necessity and apriority. While this theory is usually presented in an informal manner, I take some steps in formalizing it in this paper. To do so, I define a semantics for a propositional modal logic with operators for the modalities of necessity, actuality, and apriority that captures the relevant ideas of epistemic two-dimensional semantics. I also describe (...)
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  40. Empowering Democracy: A Socio-Ethical Theory.Angelina Inesia-Forde - 2023 - Asian Journal of Basic Science and Research 5 (3):1-20.
    Great Britain subjugated colonists using various power strategies, including dehumanization, misinformation, fear, and other divisive strategies. The Founders described these oppressive strategies as “a long train of abuses and usurpations.” Throughout the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, the Founding Fathers imbued the people with hope in a government for the people: one unlike that of the monarchy, which sought to protect itself at the expense of colonists. As a result, the Founders created a government more likely to lead (...)
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  41. How to count biological minds: symbiosis, the free energy principle, and reciprocal multiscale integration.Matthew Sims - 2020 - Synthese 199 (1-2):2157-2179.
    The notion of a physiological individuals has been developed and applied in the philosophy of biology to understand symbiosis, an understanding of which is key to theorising about the major transition in evolution from multi-organismality to multi-cellularity. The paper begins by asking what such symbiotic individuals can help to reveal about a possible transition in the evolution of cognition. Such a transition marks the movement from cooperating individual biological cognizers to a functionally integrated cognizing unit. Somewhere along the way, did (...)
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  42. Psicologia Ecológica: da percepção à cognição social.Eros Carvalho - 2022 - In Marcus José Alves de Souza & Maxwell Morais de Lima Filho (eds.), Escritos de Filosofia V: Linguagem e Cognição. Editora Fi. pp. 368-393.
    Neste texto, apresento e examino as principais ideias que animam a abordagem ecológica da percepção. Primeiro, na Seção 2, apresento a visão instantânea da percepção, contra a qual Gibson articula e propõe a abordagem ecológica. Em seguida, na Seção 3, apresento e discuto a noção de informação ecológica. Nas seções 4 e 5 articulo a teoria das affordances e discuto a aprendizagem perceptiva. Por fim, na Seção 6, exponho e discuto a possibilidade de estender a teoria das affordances para explicar (...)
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  43. A Controvérsia em Torno do Estatuto dos Entes Matemáticos.Vasco Mano - manuscript
    Neste breve ensaio, exploramos alguns caminhos de uma controvérsia milenar em torno do estatuto dos entes matemáticos e apresentamos alguns argumentos a favor de uma posição platonista, aproximadamente clássica, sobre o tema. Este trabalho foi realizado no âmbito da disciplina de Filosofia das Ciências II, parte do curso de Filosofia da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, Portugal.
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  44. Significado e Cognição. O Legado de Frege.João Branquinho - 2016 - In Léo Peruzzo Júnior E. Bortolo Valle (ed.), Filosofia da Linguagem. pp. 9 - 52.
    Queremos neste ensaio caracterizar de modo introdutório o essencial do legado de Gottlob Frege para a Filosofia da Linguagem contemporânea, identificando e caracterizando os traços distintivos mais genéricos de uma teoria do significado (ou conteúdo semântico) inspirada nas suas ideias seminais e contrastando-a com outras concepções actuais influentes acerca do significado, em especial as posições sobre o conteúdo singular (conteúdo expresso por nomes próprios e outros termos singulares) remotamente inspiradas em ideias de John Stuart Mill.
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  45. Existência.João Branquinho - 2015 - Compêndio Em Linha de Problemas de Filosofia Analítica.
    Neste ensaio, discutem-se cinco questões acerca da existência: 1. É a existência representável em termos de quantificação? 2. É a existência um predicado" real", de primeira ordem? 3. É existir o mesmo que ser? 4. Existe tudo? 5. Qual é a forma lógica de afirmações de existência? São introduzidas e examinadas algumas das mais salientes posições acerca destas questões, em especial a concepção Frege-Russell da existência e diversas concepções recentes neo-Meinongianas. Defendemos as seguintes três teses acerca daquilo que deve ser (...)
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  46. O "Melhor" no âmbito da ação humana – Ética Eudêmia I 8.Raphael Zillig - 2012 - Dissertatio 36:299-316.
    Neste trabalho, pretendemos investigar como deve ser compreendida a questão “o que é o melhor?”, enunciada por Aristóteles no início de Ética Eudêmia I 8. Pretendemos, com isso, determinar quais são as suposições a partir das quais Aristóteles aborda essa pergunta em I 8, qual o tipo de resposta que a ela deve ser fornecida e como essa questão insere-se na investigação desenvolvida nos capítulos anteriores. Sustentaremos que, em I 8, Aristóteles pretende dar continuidade à tarefa que é iniciada em (...)
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  47. Debates Contemporâneos em Filosofia da Memória: Uma Breve Introdução.César Schirmer dos Santos, André Sant'Anna, Kourken Michaelian, James Openshaw & Denis Perrin - forthcoming - Lampião.
    Neste artigo apresentamos, de forma concisa e em português, alguns elementos-chave dos principais debates contemporâneos na filosofia da memória. Nosso principal objetivo é tornar essas discussões mais acessíveis aos leitores de língua portuguesa, fornecendo uma atualização importante para esforços anteriores (Sant’Anna & Michaelian, 2019a). Começamos introduzindo a noção de viagem no tempo mental, a qual estabelece a base empírica para a metodologia empregada em trabalhos recentes, antes de apresentar dois debates centrais. Primeiro, o debate entre causalistas e simulacionistas sobre a (...)
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  48. O Mal da Morte No Pessimismo: Considerações a Partir de Arthur Schopenhauer e David Benatar.Felipe Dossena - 2024 - Kínesis - Revista de Estudos Dos Pós-Graduandos Em Filosofia 15 (39):152-166.
    Neste trabalho, investigo a possibilidade de compatibilidade entre o pessimismo filosófico e a compreensão da morte como um mal para quem morre. Por pessimismo filosófico, compreendo a doutrina filosófica que mantém como tese fundamental que a não-existência é preferível à existência, de modo que o pessimismo é tomado como a filosofia de que a vida não vale a pena ser vivida. Por mal da morte, me refiro à compreensão da morte como um dano para o indivíduo que morre, cujo pressuposto (...)
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  49. A importância da literatura antiga para a formação do professor.Marcos Sidnei Pagotto-Euzebio - 2020 - In Marcos Sidnei Pagotto-Euzebio & Rogério de Almeida (eds.), O Mundo Antigo, o Livre Falar e o Livre Pensar. São Paulo: FEUSP - Coleção GALATEA. pp. 132-148.
    "Tentarei, neste texto, apresentar argumentos não só para recomendar os estudos da Antiguidade em educação, mas para deixar claro o quanto esses estudos são fundamentais para a formação do professor. Meus argumentos serão de dois tipos: em primeiro lugar, apresentarei a Antiguidade — e por esse nome eu me refiro à literatura dos antigos gregos e romanos — como uma herança que está à nossa disposição. Depois, quero apontar, sumariamente, a conexão necessária entre a presença dessa literatura e o vocabulário (...)
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  50. Sobre a Formalização Lógica de Mudança de Teorias e Anomalias Científicas.Ricardo Silvestre - 2017 - ARGUMENTOS - Revista de Filosofia 1 (17):72-91.
    Neste trabalho, é apresentada uma investigação do que poderia ser chamado de formalização lógica do processo de mudança de teorias devido a anomalias. Por anomalia entende-se um fato observado que faz parte do escopo explanatório de uma teoria, mas que vai de encontro à previsão da mesma. Uma abordagem clássica para restaurar o poder explicativo de uma teoria ameaçada por uma anomalia é a postulação de hipóteses novas e provisórias que, em conjunto com as demais hipóteses auxiliares originais, sejam capazes (...)
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