Results for 'Number base'

999 found
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  1. Evaluation of the alternatives of introducing electric vehicles in developing countries using Type-2 neutrosophic numbers based RAFSI model.Ilgin Gokasar, Muhammet Deveci, Mehtap Isik, Tugrul Daim & Florentin Smarandache - unknown
    This study focuses on implementing electric vehicles (EVs) in developing countries where energy production is mainly based on fossil fuels. Although for these countries the environmental short-run benefits of the EVs cannot offset the short-run costs, it may still be the best option to implement the EVs as soon as possible. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the alternatives to introducing EVs to the market due to the environmental concerns that created an opportunity for some developing countries to catch up (...)
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  2. Rational Number Representation by the Approximate Number System.Chuyan Qu, Sam Clarke, Francesca Luzzi & Elizabeth Brannon - 2024 - Cognition 250 (105839):1-13.
    The approximate number system (ANS) enables organisms to represent the approximate number of items in an observed collection, quickly and independently of natural language. Recently, it has been proposed that the ANS goes beyond representing natural numbers by extracting and representing rational numbers (Clarke & Beck, 2021a). Prior work demonstrates that adults and children discriminate ratios in an approximate and ratio-dependent manner, consistent with the hallmarks of the ANS. Here, we use a well-known “connectedness illusion” to provide evidence (...)
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  3. Set Theory INC_{∞^{#}}^{#} Based on Infinitary Intuitionistic Logic with Restricted Modus Ponens Rule (Part III).Hyper inductive definitions. Application in transcendental number theory.Jaykov Foukzon - 2021 - Journal of Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science 36 (8):43.
    Main results are: (i) number e^{e} is transcendental; (ii) the both numbers e+π and e-π are irrational.
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  4. Leibniz on Number Systems.Lloyd Strickland - 2024 - In Bharath Sriraman (ed.), Handbook of the History and Philosophy of Mathematical Practice. Springer. pp. 167-197.
    This chapter examines the pioneering work of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) on various number systems, in particular binary, which he independently invented in the mid-to-late 1670s, and hexadecimal, which he invented in 1679. The chapter begins with the oft-debated question of who may have influenced Leibniz’s invention of binary, though as none of the proposed candidates is plausible I suggest a different hypothesis, that Leibniz initially developed binary notation as a tool to assist his investigations in mathematical problems that (...)
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  5. Survey-based naming conventions for use in OBO Foundry ontology development.Schober Daniel, Barry Smith, Lewis Suzanna, E. Kusnierczyk, Waclaw Lomax, Jane Mungall, Chris Taylor, F. Chris, Rocca-Serra Philippe & Sansone Susanna-Assunta - 2009 - BMC Bioinformatics 10 (1):125.
    A wide variety of ontologies relevant to the biological and medical domains are available through the OBO Foundry portal, and their number is growing rapidly. Integration of these ontologies, while requiring considerable effort, is extremely desirable. However, heterogeneities in format and style pose serious obstacles to such integration. In particular, inconsistencies in naming conventions can impair the readability and navigability of ontology class hierarchies, and hinder their alignment and integration. While other sources of diversity are tremendously complex and challenging, (...)
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  6. Knowledge-based systems that determine the appropriate students major: In the faculty of engineering and information technology.Samy S. Abu Naser & Ihab S. Zaqout - 2016 - World Wide Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development 2 (10):26-34.
    In this paper a Knowledge-Based System (KBS) for determining the appropriate students major according to his/her preferences for sophomore student enrolled in the Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology in Al-Azhar University of Gaza was developed and tested. A set of predefined criterions that is taken into consideration before a sophomore student can select a major is outlined. Such criterion as high school score, score of subject such as Math I, Math II, Electrical Circuit I, and Electronics I taken during (...)
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  7. Fair Numbers: What Data Can and Cannot Tell Us About the Underrepresentation of Women in Philosophy.Yann Benétreau-Dupin & Guillaume Beaulac - 2015 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 2:59-81.
    The low representation (< 30%) of women in philosophy in English-speaking countries has generated much discussion, both in academic circles and the public sphere. It is sometimes suggested (Haslanger 2009) that unconscious biases, acting at every level in the field, may be grounded in gendered schemas of philosophers and in the discipline more widely, and that actions to make philosophy a more welcoming place for women should address such schemas. However, existing data are too limited to fully warrant such an (...)
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  8. Numbers and functions in Hilbert's finitism.Richard Zach - 1998 - Taiwanese Journal for History and Philosophy of Science 10:33-60.
    David Hilbert's finitistic standpoint is a conception of elementary number theory designed to answer the intuitionist doubts regarding the security and certainty of mathematics. Hilbert was unfortunately not exact in delineating what that viewpoint was, and Hilbert himself changed his usage of the term through the 1920s and 30s. The purpose of this paper is to outline what the main problems are in understanding Hilbert and Bernays on this issue, based on some publications by them which have so far (...)
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  9. Act-Based Conceptions of Propositional Content: Contemporary and Historical Perspectives.Friederike Moltmann & Mark Textor (eds.) - 2017 - New York: Oxford University Press.
    Ever since Frege, propositions have played a central role in philosophy of language. Propositions are generally conceived as abstract objects that have truth conditions essentially and fulfill both the role of the meaning of sentences and of the objects or content of propositional attitudes. More recently, the abstract conception of propositions has given rise to serious dissatisfaction among a number of philosophers, who have instead proposed a conception of propositional content based on cognitive acts (Hanks, Moltmann, Soames). This approach (...)
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  10. The Dirac large number hypothesis and a system of evolving fundamental constants.Andrew Holster - manuscript
    In his [1937, 1938], Paul Dirac proposed his “Large Number Hypothesis” (LNH), as a speculative law, based upon what we will call the “Large Number Coincidences” (LNC’s), which are essentially “coincidences” in the ratios of about six large dimensionless numbers in physics. Dirac’s LNH postulates that these numerical coincidences reflect a deeper set of law-like relations, pointing to a revolutionary theory of cosmology. This led to substantial work, including the development of Dirac’s later [1969/74] cosmology, and other alternative (...)
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  11. Free Will Skepticism and Personhood as a Desert Base.Benjamin Vilhauer - 2009 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 39 (3):489-511.
    In contemporary free will theory, a significant number of philosophers are once again taking seriously the possibility that human beings do not have free will, and are therefore not morally responsible for their actions. (Free will is understood here as whatever satisfies the control condition of moral responsibility.) Free will theorists commonly assume that giving up the belief that human beings are morally responsible implies giving up all our beliefs about desert. But the consequences of giving up the belief (...)
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  12. The material origin of numbers: Insights from the archaeology of the Ancient Near East.Karenleigh Anne Overmann - 2019 - Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA: Gorgias Press.
    What are numbers, and where do they come from? A novel answer to these timeless questions is proposed by cognitive archaeologist Karenleigh A. Overmann, based on her groundbreaking study of material devices used for counting in the Ancient Near East—fingers, tallies, tokens, and numerical notations—as interpreted through the latest neuropsychological insights into human numeracy and literacy. The result, a unique synthesis of interdisciplinary data, outlines how number concepts would have been realized in a pristine original condition to develop into (...)
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  13. Philosophy of Evidence Based Medicine (Oxford Bibliography: http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780195396577/obo-9780195396577-0253.xml).Jeremy Howick, Ashley Graham Kennedy & Alexander Mebius - 2015 - Oxford Bibliography.
    Since its introduction just over two decades ago, evidence-based medicine (EBM) has come to dominate medical practice, teaching, and policy. There are a growing number of textbooks, journals, and websites dedicated to EBM research, teaching, and evidence dissemination. EBM was most recently defined as a method that integrates best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient values and circumstances in the treatment of patients. There have been debates throughout the early 21st century about what counts as good research evidence (...)
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  14. Neutosophic Quadruple Numbers, Refined Neutrosophic Quadruple Number, Absorbance Law, and the Multiplication of Neutrosophic Quadruple Numbers.Florentin Smarandache - 2015 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 10:96-98.
    In this paper, we introduce for the first time the neutrosophic quadruple numbers (of the form a + bT + cI + dF) and the refined neutrosophic quadruple numbers. Then we define an absorbance law, based on a prevalence order, both of them in order to multiply the neutrosophic components T, I, F, or their sub-components tJ, Ik, Fl and thus to construct the multiplication of neutrosophic quadruple numbers.
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  15. How to Learn the Natural Numbers: Inductive Inference and the Acquisition of Number Concepts.Eric Margolis & Stephen Laurence - 2008 - Cognition 106 (2):924-939.
    Theories of number concepts often suppose that the natural numbers are acquired as children learn to count and as they draw an induction based on their interpretation of the first few count words. In a bold critique of this general approach, Rips, Asmuth, Bloomfield [Rips, L., Asmuth, J. & Bloomfield, A.. Giving the boot to the bootstrap: How not to learn the natural numbers. Cognition, 101, B51–B60.] argue that such an inductive inference is consistent with a representational system that (...)
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  16.  91
    Some Results on a Generalized Version of Congruent Numbers.Leomarich Casinillo & Emily Casinillo - 2021 - Inprime: Indonesian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics 3 (1):1-6.
    This paper aims to construct a new formula that generates a generalized version of congruent numbers based on a generalized version of Pythagorean triples. Here, an elliptic curve equation is constructed from the derived generalized version of Pythagorean triples and congruent numbers and gives some new results.
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  17. Updating the “abstract–concrete” distinction in Ancient Near Eastern numbers.Karenleigh Overmann - 2018 - Cuneiform Digital Library Journal 1:1–22.
    The characterization of early token-based accounting using a concrete concept of number, later numerical notations an abstract one, has become well entrenched in the literature. After reviewing its history and assumptions, this article challenges the abstract–concrete distinction, presenting an alternative view of change in Ancient Near Eastern number concepts, wherein numbers are abstract from their inception and materially bound when most elaborated. The alternative draws on the chronological sequence of material counting technologies used in the Ancient Near East—fingers, (...)
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  18. Steps Towards a Minimalist Account of Numbers.Thomas Schindler - 2021 - Mind 131 (523):863-891.
    This paper outlines an account of numbers based on the numerical equivalence schema, which consists of all sentences of the form ‘#x.Fx=n if and only if ∃nx Fx’, where # is the number-of operator and ∃n is defined in standard Russellian fashion. In the first part of the paper, I point out some analogies between the NES and the T-schema for truth. In light of these analogies, I formulate a minimalist account of numbers, based on the NES, which strongly (...)
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  19. The Value-Based Theory of Reasons.Barry Maguire - 2016 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 3.
    This paper develops the Value-Based Theory of Reasons in some detail. The central part of the paper introduces a number of theoretically puzzling features of normative reasons. These include weight, transmission, overlap, and the promiscuity of reasons. It is argued that the Value-Based Theory of Reasons elegantly accounts for these features. This paper is programmatic. Its goal is to put the promising but surprisingly overlooked Value-Based Theory of Reasons on the table in discussions of normative reasons, and to draw (...)
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  20. On What Ground Do Thin Objects Exist? In Search of the Cognitive Foundation of Number Concepts.Markus Pantsar - 2023 - Theoria 89 (3):298-313.
    Linnebo in 2018 argues that abstract objects like numbers are “thin” because they are only required to be referents of singular terms in abstraction principles, such as Hume's principle. As the specification of existence claims made by analytic truths (the abstraction principles), their existence does not make any substantial demands of the world; however, as Linnebo notes, there is a potential counter-argument concerning infinite regress against introducing objects this way. Against this, he argues that vicious regress is avoided in the (...)
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  21. Pro Tanto Rights and the Duty to Save the Greater Number.Benjamin Kiesewetter - 2023 - Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics 13:190-214.
    This paper has two aims. The first is to present and defend a new argument for rights contributionism – the view that the notion of a moral claim-right is a contributory (or pro tanto) rather than overall normative notion. The argument is an inference to the best explanation: it is argued that (i) there are contributory moral factors that contrast with standard moral reasons by way of having a number of formal properties that are characteristic of rights, even though (...)
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  22. A New Similarity Measure Based on Falsity Value between Single Valued Neutrosophic Sets Based on the Centroid Points of Transformed Single Valued Neutrosophic Values with Applications to Pattern Recognition.Mehmet Sahin, Necati Olgun, Vakkas Ulucay, Abdullah Kargin & Florentin Smarandache - 2017 - Neutrosophic Sets and Systems 15:31-48.
    In this paper, we propose some transfor mations based on the centroid points between single valued neutrosophic numbers. We introduce these trans formations according to truth, indeterminacy and falsity value of single valued neutrosophic numbers. We propose a new similarity measure based on falsity value between single valued neutrosophic sets. Then we prove some properties on new similarity measure based on falsity value between falsity value between single valued neutrosophic sets. Furthermore, we propose similarity measure based on falsity value between (...)
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  23. The crucial roles of biodiversity loss belief and perception in urban residents’ consumption attitude and behavior towards animal-based products.Nguyen Minh-Hoang, Tam-Tri Le, Thomas E. Jones & Quan-Hoang Vuong - manuscript
    Products made from animal fur and skin have been a major part of human civilization. However, in modern society, the unsustainable consumption of these products – often considered luxury goods – has many negative environmental impacts. This study explores how people’s perceptions of biodiversity affect their attitudes and behaviors toward consumption. To investigate the information process deeper, we add the moderation of beliefs about biodiversity loss. Following the Bayesian Mindsponge Framework (BMF) analytics, we use mindsponge-based reasoning for constructing conceptual models (...)
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  24. The Ideal of a Zero-Waste Humanity: Philosophical Reflections on the Demand for a Bio-Based Economy.Jochem Zwier, Vincent Blok, Pieter Lemmens & Robert-Jan Geerts - 2015 - Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 28 (2):353-374.
    In this paper we inquire into the fundamental assumptions that underpin the ideal of the Bio-Based Economy as it is currently developed . By interpreting the BBE from the philosophical perspective on economy developed by Georges Bataille, we demonstrate how the BBE is fully premised on a thinking of scarcity. As a result, the BBE exclusively frames economic problems in terms of efficient production, endeavoring to exclude a thinking of abundance and wastefulness. Our hypothesis is that this not only entails (...)
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  25. Frege's Changing Conception of Number.Kevin C. Klement - 2012 - Theoria 78 (2):146-167.
    I trace changes to Frege's understanding of numbers, arguing in particular that the view of arithmetic based in geometry developed at the end of his life (1924–1925) was not as radical a deviation from his views during the logicist period as some have suggested. Indeed, by looking at his earlier views regarding the connection between numbers and second-level concepts, his understanding of extensions of concepts, and the changes to his views, firstly, in between Grundlagen and Grundgesetze, and, later, after learning (...)
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  26. A realism-based approach to the evolution of biomedical ontologies.Barry Smith - 2006 - In Proceedings of the Annual AMIA Symposium. Washington, DC: American Medical Informatics Association. pp. 121-125.
    We present a novel methodology for calculating the improvements obtained in successive versions of biomedical ontologies. The theory takes into account changes both in reality itself and in our understanding of this reality. The successful application of the theory rests on the willingness of ontology authors to document changes they make by following a number of simple rules. The theory provides a pathway by which ontology authoring can become a science rather than an art, following principles analogous to those (...)
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  27. The Significance of Evidence-based Reasoning for Mathematics, Mathematics Education, Philosophy and the Natural Sciences.Bhupinder Singh Anand - forthcoming
    In this multi-disciplinary investigation we show how an evidence-based perspective of quantification---in terms of algorithmic verifiability and algorithmic computability---admits evidence-based definitions of well-definedness and effective computability, which yield two unarguably constructive interpretations of the first-order Peano Arithmetic PA---over the structure N of the natural numbers---that are complementary, not contradictory. The first yields the weak, standard, interpretation of PA over N, which is well-defined with respect to assignments of algorithmically verifiable Tarskian truth values to the formulas of PA under the interpretation. (...)
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  28. The inheritance-based claim to reparations.Stephen Kershnar - 2002 - Legal Theory 8 (2):243-267.
    Slavery harmed the slaves but not their descendants since slavery brought about their existence. The descendants gain the slaves’ claims via inheritance. However, collecting the inheritance-based claim runs into a number of difficulties. First, every descendant usually has no more than a portion of the slave’s claim because the claim is often divided over generations. Second, there are epistemic difficulties involving the ownership of the claim since it is unlikely that a descendant of a slave several generations removed would (...)
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  29. Towards Soliton Computer Based on Solitary Wave Solution of Maxwell Dirac equation: A Plausible Alternative to Manakov System.Victor Christianto & Florentin Smarandache - 2023 - Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences 42.
    In recent years, there are a number of proposals to consider collision-based soliton computer based on certain chemical reactions, namely Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, which leads to soliton solutions of coupled Nonlinear Schroedinger equations. They are called Manakov System. But it seems to us that such a soliton computer model can also be based on solitary wave solution of Maxwell-Dirac equation, which reduces to Choquard equation. And soliton solution of Choquard equation has been investigated by many researchers, therefore it seems more (...)
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  30. Decision Making Based on Valued Fuzzy Superhypergraphs.Florentin Smarandache - 2023 - Computer Modeling in Engineering and Sciences 138 (2):1907-1923.
    This paper explores the defects in fuzzy (hyper) graphs (as complex (hyper) networks) and extends the fuzzy (hyper) graphs to fuzzy (quasi) superhypergraphs as a new concept.We have modeled the fuzzy superhypergraphs as complex superhypernetworks in order to make a relation between labeled objects in the form of details and generalities. Indeed, the structure of fuzzy (quasi) superhypergraphs collects groups of labeled objects and analyzes them in the form of the part to part of objects, the part of objects to (...)
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  31. Mechanisms: what are they evidence for in evidence-based medicine?Holly Andersen - 2012 - Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (5):992-999.
    Even though the evidence‐based medicine movement (EBM) labels mechanisms a low quality form of evidence, consideration of the mechanisms on which medicine relies, and the distinct roles that mechanisms might play in clinical practice, offers a number of insights into EBM itself. In this paper, I examine the connections between EBM and mechanisms from several angles. I diagnose what went wrong in two examples where mechanistic reasoning failed to generate accurate predictions for how a dysfunctional mechanism would respond to (...)
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  32. A psychologically based taxonomy of magicians’ forcing techniques: How magicians influence our choices, and how to use this to study psychological mechanisms.Alice Pailhès, Ronald A. Rensink & Gustav Kuhn - 2020 - Consciousness and Cognition 86 (C):103038.
    “Pick a card, any card. This has to be a completely free choice.” the magician tells you. But is it really? Although we like to think that we are using our free will to make our decisions, research in psychology has shown that many of our behaviours are automatic and unconsciously influenced by external stimuli (Ariely, 2008; Bargh & Chartrand, 1999; Newell & Shanks, 2014; Nisbett & Wilson, 1977), and that we are often oblivious to the cognitive mechanisms that underpin (...)
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  33. Lower and Upper Estimates of the Quantity of Algebraic Numbers.Yaroslav Sergeyev - 2023 - Mediterranian Journal of Mathematics 20:12.
    It is well known that the set of algebraic numbers (let us call it A) is countable. In this paper, instead of the usage of the classical terminology of cardinals proposed by Cantor, a recently introduced methodology using ①-based infinite numbers is applied to measure the set A (where the number ① is called grossone). Our interest to this methodology is explained by the fact that in certain cases where cardinals allow one to say only whether a set is (...)
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  34. The Significance of Evidence-based Reasoning in Mathematics, Mathematics Education, Philosophy, and the Natural Sciences.Bhupinder Singh Anand - 2020 - Mumbai: DBA Publishing (First Edition).
    In this multi-disciplinary investigation we show how an evidence-based perspective of quantification---in terms of algorithmic verifiability and algorithmic computability---admits evidence-based definitions of well-definedness and effective computability, which yield two unarguably constructive interpretations of the first-order Peano Arithmetic PA---over the structure N of the natural numbers---that are complementary, not contradictory. The first yields the weak, standard, interpretation of PA over N, which is well-defined with respect to assignments of algorithmically verifiable Tarskian truth values to the formulas of PA under the interpretation. (...)
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  35. Neural Network-Based Audit Risk Prediction: A Comprehensive Study.Saif al-Din Yusuf Al-Hayik & Samy S. Abu-Naser - 2023 - International Journal of Academic Engineering Research (IJAER) 7 (10):43-51.
    Abstract: This research focuses on utilizing Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to predict Audit Risk accurately, a critical aspect of ensuring financial system integrity and preventing fraud. Our dataset, gathered from Kaggle, comprises 18 diverse features, including financial and historical parameters, offering a comprehensive view of audit-related factors. These features encompass 'Sector_score,' 'PARA_A,' 'SCORE_A,' 'PARA_B,' 'SCORE_B,' 'TOTAL,' 'numbers,' 'marks,' 'Money_Value,' 'District,' 'Loss,' 'Loss_SCORE,' 'History,' 'History_score,' 'score,' and 'Risk,' with a total of 774 samples. Our proposed neural network architecture, consisting of three (...)
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  36. Biomedical ontology alignment: An approach based on representation learning.Prodromos Kolyvakis, Alexandros Kalousis, Barry Smith & Dimitris Kiritsis - 2018 - Journal of Biomedical Semantics 9 (21).
    While representation learning techniques have shown great promise in application to a number of different NLP tasks, they have had little impact on the problem of ontology matching. Unlike past work that has focused on feature engineering, we present a novel representation learning approach that is tailored to the ontology matching task. Our approach is based on embedding ontological terms in a high-dimensional Euclidean space. This embedding is derived on the basis of a novel phrase retrofitting strategy through which (...)
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  37. Independence of the Grossone-Based Infinity Methodology from Non-standard Analysis and Comments upon Logical Fallacies in Some Texts Asserting the Opposite.Yaroslav D. Sergeyev - 2019 - Foundations of Science 24 (1):153-170.
    This paper considers non-standard analysis and a recently introduced computational methodology based on the notion of ①. The latter approach was developed with the intention to allow one to work with infinities and infinitesimals numerically in a unique computational framework and in all the situations requiring these notions. Non-standard analysis is a classical purely symbolic technique that works with ultrafilters, external and internal sets, standard and non-standard numbers, etc. In its turn, the ①-based methodology does not use any of these (...)
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  38. Beliefs About the True Self Explain Asymmetries Based on Moral Judgment.George E. Newman, Julian De Freitas & Joshua Knobe - 2015 - Cognitive Science 39 (1):96-125.
    Past research has identified a number of asymmetries based on moral judgments. Beliefs about what a person values, whether a person is happy, whether a person has shown weakness of will, and whether a person deserves praise or blame seem to depend critically on whether participants themselves find the agent's behavior to be morally good or bad. To date, however, the origins of these asymmetries remain unknown. The present studies examine whether beliefs about an agent's “true self” explain these (...)
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  39. The crucial roles of biodiversity loss belief and perception in urban residents’ consumption attitude and behavior towards animal-based products.Minh-Hoang Nguyen, Tam-Tri Le, Thomas Jones & Quan-Hoang Vuong - manuscript
    Products made from animal fur and skin have been a major part of human civilization. However, in modern society, the unsustainable consumption of these products – often considered luxury goods – has many negative environmental impacts. This study explores how people’s perceptions of biodiversity affect their attitudes and behaviors toward consumption. To investigate the information process deeper, we add the moderation of beliefs about biodiversity loss. Following the Bayesian Mindsponge Framework (BMF) analytics, we use mindsponge-based reasoning for constructing conceptual models (...)
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  40. A Revolutionary New Metaphysics, Based on Consciousness, and a Call to All Philosophers.Lorna Green - manuscript
    June 2022 A Revolutionary New Metaphysics, Based on Consciousness, and a Call to All Philosophers We are in a unique moment of our history unlike any previous moment ever. Virtually all human economies are based on the destruction of the Earth, and we are now at a place in our history where we can foresee if we continue on as we are, our own extinction. As I write, the planet is in deep trouble, heat, fires, great storms, and record flooding, (...)
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  41.  58
    A realism-based approach to the evolution of biomedical ontologies.Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith - 2006 - In Proceedings of the Annual AMIA Symposium. Washington, DC: American Medical Informatics Association.
    We present a novel methodology for calculating the improvements obtained in successive versions of biomedical ontologies. The theory takes into account changes both in reality itself and in our understanding of this reality. The successful application of the theory rests on the willingness of ontology authors to document changes they make by following a number of simple rules. The theory provides a pathway by which ontology authoring can become a science rather than an art, following principles analogous to those (...)
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  42. On Certain Axiomatizations of Arithmetic of Natural and Integer Numbers.Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska - 2019 - Axioms 2019 (Deductive Systems).
    The systems of arithmetic discussed in this work are non-elementary theories. In this paper, natural numbers are characterized axiomatically in two di erent ways. We begin by recalling the classical set P of axioms of Peano’s arithmetic of natural numbers proposed in 1889 (including such primitive notions as: set of natural numbers, zero, successor of natural number) and compare it with the set W of axioms of this arithmetic (including the primitive notions like: set of natural numbers and relation (...)
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  43. Differential Calculus Based on the Double Contradiction.Kazuhiko Kotani - 2016 - Open Journal of Philosophy 6 (4):420-427.
    The derivative is a basic concept of differential calculus. However, if we calculate the derivative as change in distance over change in time, the result at any instant is 0/0, which seems meaningless. Hence, Newton and Leibniz used the limit to determine the derivative. Their method is valid in practice, but it is not easy to intuitively accept. Thus, this article describes the novel method of differential calculus based on the double contradiction, which is easier to accept intuitively. Next, the (...)
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  44. For Torture: A Rights-Based Defense.Stephen Kershnar - 2011 - Lexington Books.
    This book is an analysis and evaluation of torture. My take on torture is unique for four reasons. First, it provides a distinct analysis of what torture is. Second, it argues that on non-consequentialist grounds, specifically rights-based ones, torture is sometimes permissible. Third, it argues that torturers are not always vicious. Fourth, it argues that it is plausible that these conclusions apply to some real world cases. In short, it fills the following gap: it evaluates torture from a rights-based perspective (...)
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  45. Bitplanes Block Based Exact Image Compression.Abdelatief H. Abouali - 2018 - International Journal of Engineering and Information Systems (IJEAIS) 2 (10):18-26.
    Abstract: In this paper, an exact image compression based on bit-planes blocking is proposed. The proposed algorithm uses two bit codes for block representation. The codes represent the states of Unicode block and non-Unicode. The algorithm considers further division to non-Unicode block. The block division continues until the smallest block size which are kept as residuals. The smallest block size in the study is two by two. The main process of encoding consumed three codes. Subsequent process uses the fourth code (...)
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  46. The Inclusion of Polysemes in Non-native English Textbooks: A Corpus-based Study.Hicham Lahlou & Hajar Abdul Rahim - 2023 - Arab World English Journal 14 (2):19-29.
    Despite the large number of studies conducted on polysemy, they mostly compare the different methods and techniques to learn a language and establish the extent to which particular sense relations facilitate the learning of second language vocabulary. To our best knowledge, no research has been conducted to determine whether or not polysemy is emphasized in non-native English textbooks. The objective of the present research was to determine the degree to which polysemy is incorporated in English textbooks. Thus, the research (...)
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  47. “Just” accuracy? Procedural fairness demands explainability in AI‑based medical resource allocation.Jon Rueda, Janet Delgado Rodríguez, Iris Parra Jounou, Joaquín Hortal-Carmona, Txetxu Ausín & David Rodríguez-Arias - 2022 - AI and Society:1-12.
    The increasing application of artificial intelligence (AI) to healthcare raises both hope and ethical concerns. Some advanced machine learning methods provide accurate clinical predictions at the expense of a significant lack of explainability. Alex John London has defended that accuracy is a more important value than explainability in AI medicine. In this article, we locate the trade-off between accurate performance and explainable algorithms in the context of distributive justice. We acknowledge that accuracy is cardinal from outcome-oriented justice because it helps (...)
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  48. Pedestrian detection based on hierarchical co-occurrence model for occlusion handling.Xiaowei Zhang, HaiMiao Hu, Fan Jiang & Bo Li - 2015 - Neurocomputing 10.
    In pedestrian detection, occlusions are typically treated as an unstructured source of noise and explicit models have lagged behind those for object appearance, which will result in degradation of detection performance. In this paper, a hierarchical co-occurrence model is proposed to enhance the semantic representation of a pedestrian. In our proposed hierarchical model, a latent SVM structure is employed to model the spatial co-occurrence relations among the parent–child pairs of nodes as hidden variables for handling the partial occlusions. Moreover, the (...)
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  49. The Truth Assignments That Differentiate Human Reasoning From Mechanistic Reasoning: The Evidence-Based Argument for Lucas' Goedelian Thesis.Bhupinder Singh Anand - 2016 - Cognitive Systems Research 40:35-45.
    We consider the argument that Tarski's classic definitions permit an intelligence---whether human or mechanistic---to admit finitary evidence-based definitions of the satisfaction and truth of the atomic formulas of the first-order Peano Arithmetic PA over the domain N of the natural numbers in two, hitherto unsuspected and essentially different, ways: (1) in terms of classical algorithmic verifiabilty; and (2) in terms of finitary algorithmic computability. We then show that the two definitions correspond to two distinctly different assignments of satisfaction and truth (...)
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  50. Ortega y Gasset on Georg Cantor’s Theory of Transfinite Numbers.Lior Rabi - 2016 - Kairos (15):46-70.
    Ortega y Gasset is known for his philosophy of life and his effort to propose an alternative to both realism and idealism. The goal of this article is to focus on an unfamiliar aspect of his thought. The focus will be given to Ortega’s interpretation of the advancements in modern mathematics in general and Cantor’s theory of transfinite numbers in particular. The main argument is that Ortega acknowledged the historical importance of the Cantor’s Set Theory, analyzed it and articulated a (...)
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