Results for 'Operations research'

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  1. Strategic and Operational Planning As Approach for Crises Management Field Study on UNRWA.Mazen J. Al Shobaki, Youssef M. Abu Amuna & Samy S. Abu Naser - 2017 - International Journal of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering 5 (6):43-47.
    The research aims to study the role of strategic and operational planning as approach for crises management in UNRWA - Gaza Strip field- Palestine. Several descriptive analytical methods were used for this purpose and a survey as a tool for data collection. Community size was (881), and the study sample was stratified random (268). The overall findings of the current study show that strategic and operational planning is performed in UNRWA. The results of static analysis show that there are (...)
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  2. Conceptual Issues in Operant Psychology.Peter Harzem & Thomas Miles - 1978 - Wiley.
    This book combines ideas from two separate sources. The first of these is the total body of research which comes under the head of operant psychology and which owes its origin primarily to B. F. Skinner. The second is the set of techniques which have been developed in philosophy in the last 50 years and which are associated in particular with the names of Ludwig Wittgenstein, J. L. Austin, and Gilbert Ryle. Our main task will be to make use (...)
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  3. Dispositionalism and the Modal Operators.David Yates - 2015 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 91 (2):411-424.
    Actualists of a certain stripe—dispositionalists—hold that metaphysical modality is grounded in the powers of actual things. Roughly: p is possible iff something has, or some things have, the power to bring it about that p. Extant critiques of dispositionalism focus on its material adequacy, and question whether there are enough powers to account for all the possibilities we intuitively want to countenance. For instance, it seems possible that none of the actual contingent particulars ever existed, but it is impossible to (...)
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  4. Is Defining Life Pointless? Operational Definitions at the Frontiers of Biology.Leonardo Bich & Sara Green - 2017 - Synthese:1-28.
    Despite numerous and increasing attempts to define what life is, there is no consensus on necessary and sufficient conditions for life. Accordingly, some scholars have questioned the value of definitions of life and encouraged scientists and philosophers alike to discard the project. As an alternative to this pessimistic conclusion, we argue that critically rethinking the nature and uses of definitions can provide new insights into the epistemic roles of definitions of life for different research practices. This paper examines the (...)
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  5. Natural Deduction for Diagonal Operators.Fabio Lampert - 2017 - In Maria Zack & Dirk Schlimm (eds.), Research in History and Philosophy of Mathematics: The CSHPM 2016 Annual Meeting in Calgary, Alberta. Cham: Birkhäuser. pp. 39-51.
    We present a sound and complete Fitch-style natural deduction system for an S5 modal logic containing an actuality operator, a diagonal necessity operator, and a diagonal possibility operator. The logic is two-dimensional, where we evaluate sentences with respect to both an actual world (first dimension) and a world of evaluation (second dimension). The diagonal necessity operator behaves as a quantifier over every point on the diagonal between actual worlds and worlds of evaluation, while the diagonal possibility quantifies over some point (...)
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  6.  14
    Immigrant-Operated Informal Financial Associations in South Africa: Problems and Solutions.Linus Nkem & Robertson K. Tengeh - 2018 - Acta Universitatis Danubius 14 (1):84-98.
    While immigrants are at liberty to start self-help financial associations (referred to as stokvels in South Africa) to cater for their unfufilled need for capital, the benefits of this laudable effort are seldom maximised due to a number of shortcomings. Aim: This paper seeks to ascertain the operational obstacles that immigrant-run stokvels face and to suggest solutions accordingly. Method: Aiming to complement each other, quantitative and qualitative research approaches were utilised to conduct this study. Quantitative and qualitative data were (...)
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  7. The Impact of Management Requirements and Operations of Computerized Management Information Systems to Improve Performance (Practical Study on the employees of the company of Gaza Electricity Distribution).Samy S. Abu Naser & Mazen J. Al Shobaki - 2016 - Al-Azhar University, Gaza 1 (1):1-28.
    The research aims to identify the impact of the management requirements on operating of computerized management information systems to improve performance, and discuss the perceptions of respondents to develop the performance of employees in the Gaza Electricity Distribution Company, the researchers used the stratified sample method, (360) questionnaires were distributed on the study sample, (306) questionnaires were recoved with a percentage of (85%). The most important findings of the study: computerized MI have a positive impact on the development of (...)
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  8. Research, Teaching and Service: Why Shouldn't Women's Work Count?Shelley M. Park - 1996 - Journal of Higher Education 67 (1):46-84.
    This article examines one way institutionalized sexism operates in the university setting by examining the gender roles and gender hierarchies implicit in (allegedly gender-neutral) university tenure and promotion policies. Current working assumptions regarding (1) what constitutes good research, teaching, and service and (2) the relative importance of each of these endeavors reflect and perpetuate masculine values and practices, thus preventing the professional advancement of female faculty both individually and collectively. A gendered division of labor exists within (as outside) the (...)
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  9. Enhancing the Use of Decision Support Systems for Re-Engineering of Operations and Business- Applied Study on the Palestinian Universities.Samy S. Abu Naser & Mazen J. Al Shobaki - 2016 - Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science Studies 2 (5):505--512.
    This research aims to identify the use of decision support systems as an entry point for operations of re-engineering in the Palestinian universities in Gaza Strip. The researchers used the method of questionnaire to collect data, and the researchers used a sample stratified random way, were (350) questionnaire distributed on the research sample and (312) questionnaire were collected back (89.1%). The study results showed that the most important ones are: there exists statistically significant impact at the level (...)
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  10. Contextualism, Subject‐Sensitive Invariantism, and the Interaction of ‘Knowledge’‐Ascriptions with Modal and Temporal Operators.Michael Blome-Tillmann - 2009 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 79 (2):315-331.
    Jason Stanley has argued recently that Epistemic Contextualism and Subject‐Sensitive Invariantism are explanatorily on a par with regard to certain data arising from modal and temporal embeddings of ‘knowledge’‐ascriptions. This paper argues against Stanley that EC has a clear advantage over SSI in the discussed field and introduces a new type of linguistic datum strongly suggesting the falsity of SSI.
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  11.  73
    Intermediate Role of Operations Standard in the Relationship Between the Focus on Benefiting Students and Students Satisfaction in Palestinian Universities.Suliman A. El Talla, Mazen J. Al Shobaki, Samy S. Abu-Naser & Ahmed M. A. FarajAllah - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Multidisciplinary Research (IJAMR) 3 (5):86-100.
    The study aimed to identify the intermediate role of the standard of operations in the relationship between the focus on students and beneficiaries in achieving satisfaction of students in Palestinian universities. The study used the analytical descriptive method. The study was conducted on university leadership in Al-Azhar, Islamic and Al-Aqsa Universities. The study sample consisted of (200) individuals, 182 of whom responded, and the questionnaire was used in collecting the data. The results of the study were as follows: - (...)
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  12. Computational Entrepreneurship: From Economic Complexities to Interdisciplinary Research.Quan-Hoang Vuong - 2019 - Problems and Perspectives in Management 17 (1):117-129.
    The development of technology is unbelievably rapid. From limited local networks to high speed Internet, from crude computing machines to powerful semi-conductors, the world had changed drastically compared to just a few decades ago. In the constantly renewing process of adapting to such an unnaturally high-entropy setting, innovations as well as entirely new concepts, were often born. In the business world, one such phenomenon was the creation of a new type of entrepreneurship. This paper proposes a new academic discipline of (...)
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  13. Cultivating Social Science Research in Vietnam: A Case of Collaboration Between a Private Research Institute with International and Domestic Research Entities.Hiep-Hung Pham & Anh-Duc Hoang - 2020 - EdLab Asia Educational Research and Development Centre.
    Developing research groups within universities and science-technology institutions is one topic that gained a special interest in recent times. In this article, we will present our experience of building a research team in the field of Social Science at EdLab Asia Educational Research and Development Centre (EdLab Asia), a young research institute which achieved several initial results after one year of establishment: 14 published works in the journals from Clarivate WOS and Scopus list, between the time (...)
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  14. Socio-Economic Impacts of Co-Operative Societies: An Empirical Study.Md Ruhul Amin & Mohammed Mahin Uddin - 2014 - SOCRATES 2 (JUNE 2014):179-193.
    Socio-Economic Impacts of Co-operative Societies: An Empirical Study -/- Author / Authors :Md. Ruhul Amin and Mohammed Mahin Uddin Page no.179-193 Discipline : Applied Economics/ Management/ Commerce Script/language : English/Roman Category : Research paper Keywords: Co-operative, Development, Society, Constrains, Constitution, Comilla.
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  15.  47
    Doctoral Research Proposal of Cometan: Do Recognitory and Commercial Restrictions Imposed on Religious Organisations Around the World Cause Impediments to Freedom of Religion?Brandon Taylorian - 2020 - Dissertation, University of Central Lancashire
    In their 2020 International Religious Freedom Report, the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) detailed the recognition processes for religious organisations by country. Although the dynamics of religious restriction were acknowledged, the data alone did not explicate the possible link between the abuse of recognition systems and issues such as religious freedom violations, forced migration, discrimination, and terrorism. This project is primarily concerned with how the legal apparatus of religious recognition could be abused by governments and why this (...)
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  16. Stemming the Tide of Normalisation: An Expanded Feminist Analysis of the Ethics and Social Impact of Embryonic Stem Cell Research.Shelley Tremain - 2006 - Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 3 (1-2):33-42.
    Feminists have indicated the inadequacies of bioethical debates about human embryonic stem cell research, which have for the most part revolved around concerns about the moral status of the human embryo. Feminists have argued, for instance, that inquiry concerning the ethics and politics of human embryonic stem cell research should consider the relations of social power in which the research is embedded. My argument is that this feminist work on stem cells is itself inadequate, however, insofar as (...)
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  17. Assisted Conception and Embryo Research with Reference to the Tenets of Catholic Christianity.Piyali Mitra - 2017 - Online International Interdisciplinary Research Journal 7 (3):165-173.
    Religion has a considerable influence over the public’s attitudes towards science and technologies. The objective of the paper is to understand the ethical and religious problems concerning the use of embryo for research in assisting conception for infertile couples from the perspective of Catholic Christians. This paper seeks to explain our preliminary reflections on how religious communities particularly the Catholic Christian communities respond to and assess the ethics of reproductive technologies and embryo research. Christianity as a whole lacks (...)
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  18.  46
    Big Tech Corporations and AI: A Social License to Operate and Multi-Stakeholder Partnerships in the Digital Age.Marianna Capasso & Steven Umbrello - manuscript
    The pervasiveness of AI-empowered technologies across multiple sectors has led to drastic changes concerning traditional social practices and how we relate to one another. Moreover, market-driven Big Tech corporations are now entering public domains, and concerns have been raised that they may even influence public agenda and research. Therefore, this chapter focuses on assessing and evaluating what kind of business model is desirable to incentivise the AI for Social Good (AI4SG) factors. In particular, the chapter explores the implications of (...)
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  19. The Impact of Management Requirements and Operations of Computerized MIS to Improve Performance.Samy S. Abu Naser & Mazen J. Al Shobaki - 2016 - Al-Azhar University of Gaza, Palestine 1:1-28.
    The research aims to identify the impact of the management requirements on operating of computerized management information systems to improve performance, and discuss the perceptions of respondents to develop the performance of employees in the Gaza Electricity Distribution Company, the researchers used the stratified sample method, (360) questionnaires were distributed on the study sample, (306) questionnaires were recovered with a percentage of (85%). The most important findings of the study: computerized MI have a positive impact on the development of (...)
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  20. A Thought of Legal Research with Examples and Demonstrations.Kiyoung Kim - 2015 - SSRN.
    The policy makers or lawyers may face the need of legal research for reasons. The congressmen may plan to make new laws to address the challenges of their constituent or to the interest of nation. The lawyers may need to serve their clients who like to know the legal issues involved, the strategies to deal with their loss and recovery, and prospect for winning the case if the dispute has gotten worse. The lawyers may practice in a solo business (...)
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  21.  13
    Institutional Approaches to Research Integrity in Ghana.Amos K. Laar, Barbara K. Redman, Kyle Ferguson & Arthur Caplan - 2020 - Science and Engineering Ethics 26 (6):3037-3052.
    Research misconduct remains an important problem in health research despite decades of local, national, regional, and international efforts to eliminate it. The ultimate goal of every health research project, irrespective of setting, is to produce trustworthy findings to address local as well as global health issues. To be able to lead or participate meaningfully in international research collaborations, individual and institutional capacities for research integrity are paramount. Accordingly, this paper concerns itself not only with individuals’ (...)
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  22.  74
    Lessons From Learning the Craft of Theory-Driven Research.Michael A. Dover - 2010 - Proceedings of the American Sociological Association 2010.
    This article presents a case study of the structure and logic of the author’s dissertation, with a focus on theoretical content. Designed for use in proposal writing seminars or research methods courses, the article stresses the value of identifying the originating, specifying and subsidiary research questions; clarifying the subject and object of the research; situating research within a particular research tradition, and using a competing theories approach. The article stresses the need to identify conceptual problems (...)
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  23. THE FUNCTIONALITY OF BEING IN PANTALEON's OPERATIVE METAPHYSICS VIS-A-VIS THE NIGER DELTA CONCFLICT.Kanu Ikechukwu Anthony - 2012 - African Research Review 6 (1):212-222.
    The area of operative metaphysics speaks of a metaphysical system that does not just exist as an ivory tower apart from people’s experience, but one that could be applied to a concrete historical circumstance. This piece studies the concept of being as understood by Pantaleon Iroegbu, as being qua belongingness. The concept of being qua belongingness lies within the parameters of operative metaphysics. Pantaleon’s concept of being is analysed alongside the situation of crisis in the Niger Delta region, which the (...)
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  24. Consistency Maintenance of Group/Ungroup Operations in Object-Based Collaborative Graphical Editing Systems.Liping Gao & Fangyu Yu - 2015 - International Journal of Signal Processing, Image Processing and Pattern Recognition 8.
    In real-time collaborative graphical editing systems, Object-based Group/Ungroup operations are frequently accessible and practically useful. However, the existing research on these operations of the graphical editing is rare and defective. In this paper, based on Multi-Version strategy and Address Space Transformation method, a new MVSDR algorithm, which is not only applied to simple operations (such as Create, Delete, ChangeATT, etc.), but also suitable for Group/Ungroup ones, is proposed to solve the consistency maintenance problem. The proposed algorithm (...)
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  25. Assessment of Iraq’s Air Defense System in the Iraqi Freedom Operation.Adam Radomyski & Pawel Bernat - 2019 - Proceedings of International Scientific Conference ―Defense Technologies‖ DefTech 2019.
    The paper presents a synthesis of research results that focus on identifying factors that affect the organization and functioning of Iraq's air defense system during the Iraqi Freedom operation and, as a result, contributed to Iraq's defeat. An important part of the considerations presented in the article are the results of research relating to the role and significance of the use by the coalition partners of the state-of-the-art air weapon systems, which facilitated carrying out very precise strikes on (...)
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  26.  85
    The Practical Value of Biological Information for Research.Beckett Sterner - 2014 - Philosophy of Science 81 (2):175-194,.
    Many philosophers are skeptical about the scientific value of the concept of biological information. However, several have recently proposed a more positive view of ascribing information as an exercise in scientific modeling. I argue for an alternative role: guiding empirical data collection for the sake of theorizing about the evolution of semantics. I clarify and expand on Bergstrom and Rosvall’s suggestion of taking a “diagnostic” approach that defines biological information operationally as a procedure for collecting empirical cases. The more recent (...)
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  27. The Central Bank of Nigeria: History, Current Operations and Future Outlook.Ogochukwu Chinelo Okanya & Oluseun Paseda - 2019 - International Journal of Academic Accounting, Finance and Management Research (IJAAFMR) 3 (1):23-43.
    Abstract: As Nigeria’s Central Bank marks its 60th anniversary, it has become necessary to assess its performance. Consequently in this paper, we provide a comprehensive, unbiased review of the Central bank of Nigeria (CBN). The paper starts with a discussion on the role and activities of the West African Currency Board, which was the precursor of the CBN and subsequently analyzes how the Board led to the emergence of the CBN. We look at the functions, mandate and organizational structure of (...)
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  28. The Myths of Academia: Open Inquiry and Funded Research.Wade L. Robison & John T. Sanders - 1993 - Journal of College and University Law 19 (3):227-50.
    Both professors and institutions of higher education benefit from a vision of academic life that is grounded more firmly in myth than in history. According to the myth created by that traditional vision, scholars pursue research wherever their drive to knowledge takes them, and colleges and universities transmit the fruits of that research to contemporary and future generations as the accumulated wisdom of the ages. Yet the economic and social forces operating on colleges and universities as institutions, as (...)
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  29.  9
    Financing the Start-Up and Operation of Immigrantowned Businesses: The Path Taken by African Immigrants in the Cape Town Metropolitan Area of South Africa.Robertson K. Tengeh, Harry Ballard & Andre Slabbert - 2012 - African Journal of Business Management 6 (12):4666-4676.
    Drawing a sample of 135 successful African immigrant-owned businesses, this paper sets out to investigate how their owners acquired the necessary capital for start-up and growth thereafter. The paper was designed within the quantitative and qualitative research paradigms, in which a triangulation of three methods was utilised to collect and analyze the data. The paper revealed that although African immigrants are characteristically at a disadvantage when it comes to accessing capital from formal financial institutions, this does not stop them (...)
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  30.  19
    Para-Quantitative Methodology: Reclaiming Experimentalism in Educational Research.Bakhtiar Shabani Varaki - 2015 - Open Review of Educational Research 1 (2):26-41.
    This article focuses on the criticisms of current approaches in educational research methodology. Itsummarizes rationales for mixed methods and argues that the mixing quantitative paradigm andqualitative paradigm is problematic due to practical and philosophical arguments. It is alsoindicated that the current rise of mixed methods work has increased problems with quantitativeand qualitative methods. In this article we offer a different symbolic system, with differentlogical form for describing educational phenomena based on the philosophical assumptions andnew mathematical reasoning: para-quantitativism. Para-quantitative theory (...)
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  31. The Formal Sciences Discover the Philosophers' Stone.James Franklin - 1994 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 25 (4):513-533.
    The formal sciences - mathematical as opposed to natural sciences, such as operations research, statistics, theoretical computer science, systems engineering - appear to have achieved mathematically provable knowledge directly about the real world. It is argued that this appearance is correct.
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  32. Mathematical Models of Games of Chance: Epistemological Taxonomy and Potential in Problem-Gambling Research.Catalin Barboianu - 2015 - UNLV Gaming Research and Review Journal 19 (1):17-30.
    Games of chance are developed in their physical consumer-ready form on the basis of mathematical models, which stand as the premises of their existence and represent their physical processes. There is a prevalence of statistical and probabilistic models in the interest of all parties involved in the study of gambling – researchers, game producers and operators, and players – while functional models are of interest more to math-inclined players than problem-gambling researchers. In this paper I present a structural analysis of (...)
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  33.  30
    Ordinary Language Philosophy as Phenomenological Research: Reading Austin with Merleau-Ponty.Lars Leeten - forthcoming - Philosophical Investigations.
    In his late ‘A Plea for Excuses’, John L. Austin suggests labelling his philosophy ‘linguistic phenomenology’. This article examines which idea of phenomenology Austin had in mind when he coined this term and what light this sheds on his method. It is argued that the key to answering this question can be found in Merleau-Ponty’s Phenomenology of Perception, which Austin must have been familiar with. Merleau-Ponty presents phenomenology in a way Austin could embrace: it is a method, it aims at (...)
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  34. A New Three Dimensional Bivalent Hypercube Description, Analysis, and Prospects for Research.Jeremy Horne - 2012 - Neuroquantology 10 (1):12.
    A three dimensional hypercube representing all of the 4,096 dyadic computations in a standard bivalent system has been created. It has been constructed from the 16 functions arrayed in a table of functional completeness that can compute a dyadic relationship. Each component of the dyad is an operator as well as a function, such as “implication” being a result, as well as an operation. Every function in the hypercube has been color keyed to enhance the display of emerging patterns. At (...)
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  35. Structuring Decisions Under Deep Uncertainty.Casey Helgeson - 2020 - Topoi 39 (2):257-269.
    Innovative research on decision making under ‘deep uncertainty’ is underway in applied fields such as engineering and operational research, largely outside the view of normative theorists grounded in decision theory. Applied methods and tools for decision support under deep uncertainty go beyond standard decision theory in the attention that they give to the structuring of decisions. Decision structuring is an important part of a broader philosophy of managing uncertainty in decision making, and normative decision theorists can both learn (...)
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  36.  59
    Game Theory Modeling for the Cold War on Both Sides of the Iron Curtain.Harald Hagemann, Vadim Kufenko & Danila Raskov - 2016 - History of the Human Sciences 29 (4-5):99-124.
    The bi-polar confrontation between the Soviet Union and the USA involved many leading game theorists from both sides of the Iron Curtain: Oskar Morgenstern, John von Neumann, Michael Intriligator, John Nash, Thomas Schelling and Steven Brams from the United States and Nikolay Vorob’ev, Leon A. Petrosyan, Elena B. Yanovskaya and Olga N. Bondareva from the Soviet Union. The formalization of game theory took place prior to the Cold War but the geopolitical confrontation hastened and shaped its evolution. In our article (...)
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  37. Voluntary Imagination: A Fine-Grained Analysis.Ilaria Canavotto, Francesco Berto & Alessandro Giordani - 2020 - Review of Symbolic Logic:1-26.
    We study imagination as reality-oriented mental simulation : the activity of simulating nonactual scenarios in one’s mind, to investigate what would happen if they were realized. Three connected questions concerning ROMS are: What is the logic, if there is one, of such an activity? How can we gain new knowledge via it? What is voluntary in it and what is not? We address them by building a list of core features of imagination as ROMS, drawing on research in cognitive (...)
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  38. Islamic Ethics and the Implications for Business.Gillian Rice - 1999 - Journal of Business Ethics 18 (4):345 - 358.
    As global business operations expand, managers need more knowledge of foreign cultures, in particular, information on the ethics of doing business across borders. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to share the Islamic perspective on business ethics, little known in the west, which may stimulate further thinking and debate on the relationships between ethics and business, and to provide some knowledge of Islamic philosophy in order to help managers do business in Muslim cultures. The case of Egypt illustrates (...)
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  39. Non-Symbolic Halving in an Amazonian Indigene Group.Koleen McCrink, Elizabeth Spelke, Stanislas Dehaene & Pierre Pica - 2013 - Developmental Science 16 (3):451-462.
    Much research supports the existence of an Approximate Number System (ANS) that is recruited by infants, children, adults, and non-human animals to generate coarse, non-symbolic representations of number. This system supports simple arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, and ordering of amounts. The current study tests whether an intuition of a more complex calculation, division, exists in an indigene group in the Amazon, the Mundurucu, whose language includes no words for large numbers. Mundurucu children were presented with a (...)
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  40. Quantification.Anna Szabolcsi - 2010 - Cambridge University Press.
    This book surveys research in quantification starting with the foundational work in the 1970s. It paints a vivid picture of generalized quantifiers and Boolean semantics. It explains how the discovery of diverse scope behavior in the 1990s transformed the view of quantification, and how the study of the internal composition of quantifiers has become central in recent years. It presents different approaches to the same problems, and links modern logic and formal semantics to advances in generative syntax. A unique (...)
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  41. 2006 HES Presidential Address: A Tale of Two Mainstreams: Economics and Philosophy of Natural Science in the Mid-Twentieth Century.D. Wade Hands - 2007 - Journal of the History of Economic Thought 29:1-13.
    Abstract: The paper argues that mainstream economics and mainstream philosophy of natural science had much in common during the period 1945-1965. It examines seven common features of the two fields and suggests a number of historical developments that might help explain these similarities. The historical developments include: the Vienna Circle connection, the Samuelson-Harvard-Foundations connection, and the Cold War operations research connection.
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  42.  24
    Realistics Premises of Epistemic Argumentation for Dynamic Epistemic Logics.Edward Bryniarski, Zbigniew Bonikowski, Jacek Waldmajer & Urszula Wybraniec-Skardowska - 2011 - Studies in Logic, Grammar and Rhetoric 23 (36):173-187.
    In the paper, certain rational postulates for protocols describing real communicating are introduced.These rational postulates, on the one hand, allow assigning a certain typology of real systems of interactions, which is consistent with the reality of epistemic argumentation in systems of communicating, and on the other one – defining rules of using argumentation in real situations. Moreover, the presented postulates for protocols characterize information networks and administering knowledge in real interactivity systems. Due to the epistemic character of the considerations, the (...)
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  43. Implicit Bias and Prejudice.Jules Holroyd & Kathy Puddifoot - forthcoming - In Miranda Fricker, Peter J. Graham, David Henderson, Nikolaj Pedersen & Jeremy Wyatt (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Social Epistemology.
    Recent empirical research has substantiated the finding that very many of us harbour implicit biases: fast, automatic, and difficult to control processes that encode stereotypes and evaluative content, and influence how we think and behave. Since it is difficult to be aware of these processes - they have sometimes been referred to as operating 'unconsciously' - we may not know that we harbour them, nor be alert to their influence on our cognition and action. And since they are difficult (...)
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  44. Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem and the National Security State.S. M. Amadae - 2005 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 36 (4):734-743.
    This paper critically engages Philip Mirowki's essay, "The scientific dimensions of social knowledge and their distant echoes in 20th-century American philosophy of science." It argues that although the cold war context of anti-democratic elitism best suited for making decisions about engaging in nuclear war may seem to be politically and ideologically motivated, in fact we need to carefully consider the arguments underlying the new rational choice based political philosophies of the post-WWII era typified by Arrow's impossibility theorem. A distrust of (...)
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  45. Second-Order Science: A Vast and Largely Unexplored Science Frontier.K. H. Müller & A. Riegler - 2014 - Constructivist Foundations 10 (1):7-15.
    Context: Many recent research areas such as human cognition and quantum physics call the observer-independence of traditional science into question. Also, there is a growing need for self-reflexivity in science, i.e., a science that reflects on its own outcomes and products. Problem: We introduce the concept of second-order science that is based on the operation of re-entry. Our goal is to provide an overview of this largely unexplored science domain and of potential approaches in second-order fields. Method: We provide (...)
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  46. Implicit Bias, Ideological Bias, and Epistemic Risks in Philosophy.Uwe Peters - 2019 - Mind and Language 34 (3):393-419.
    It has been argued that implicit biases are operative in philosophy and lead to significant epistemic costs in the field. Philosophers working on this issue have focussed mainly on implicit gender and race biases. They have overlooked ideological bias, which targets political orientations. Psychologists have found ideological bias in their field and have argued that it has negative epistemic effects on scientific research. I relate this debate to the field of philosophy and argue that if, as some studies suggest, (...)
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  47. Knowledge and Cognitive Integration.Spyridon Orestis Palermos - 2014 - Synthese 191 (8):1931-1951.
    Cognitive integration is a defining yet overlooked feature of our intellect that may nevertheless have substantial effects on the process of knowledge-acquisition. To bring those effects to the fore, I explore the topic of cognitive integration both from the perspective of virtue reliabilism within externalist epistemology and the perspective of extended cognition within externalist philosophy of mind and cognitive science. On the basis of this interdisciplinary focus, I argue that cognitive integration can provide a minimalist yet adequate epistemic norm of (...)
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  48. Why Implicit Attitudes Are (Probably) Not Beliefs.Alex Madva - 2016 - Synthese 193 (8).
    Should we understand implicit attitudes on the model of belief? I argue that implicit attitudes are (probably) members of a different psychological kind altogether, because they seem to be insensitive to the logical form of an agent’s thoughts and perceptions. A state is sensitive to logical form only if it is sensitive to the logical constituents of the content of other states (e.g., operators like negation and conditional). I explain sensitivity to logical form and argue that it is a necessary (...)
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  49. What is Data Ethics?Luciano Floridi & Mariarosaria Taddeo - 2016 - Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 374 (2083).
    This theme issue has the founding ambition of landscaping Data Ethics as a new branch of ethics that studies and evaluates moral problems related to data (including generation, recording, curation, processing, dissemination, sharing, and use), algorithms (including AI, artificial agents, machine learning, and robots), and corresponding practices (including responsible innovation, programming, hacking, and professional codes), in order to formulate and support morally good solutions (e.g. right conducts or right values). Data Ethics builds on the foundation provided by Computer and Information (...)
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  50. Algorithmic Fairness From a Non-Ideal Perspective.Sina Fazelpour & Zachary C. Lipton - 2020 - Proceedings of the AAAI/ACM Conference on AI, Ethics, and Society.
    Inspired by recent breakthroughs in predictive modeling, practitioners in both industry and government have turned to machine learning with hopes of operationalizing predictions to drive automated decisions. Unfortunately, many social desiderata concerning consequential decisions, such as justice or fairness, have no natural formulation within a purely predictive framework. In efforts to mitigate these problems, researchers have proposed a variety of metrics for quantifying deviations from various statistical parities that we might expect to observe in a fair world and offered a (...)
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