Results for 'Plato's Apology'

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  1. Socratic Irony, Plato's Apology, and Kierkegaard's On the Concept of Irony.Paul Muench - 2009 - In Niels Jørgen Cappelørn, Hermann Deuser & K. Brian Söderquist (eds.), Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook. de Gruyter. pp. 71-125.
    In this paper I argue that Plato's Apology is the principal text on which Kierkegaard relies in arguing for the idea that Socrates is fundamentally an ironist. After providing an overview of the structure of this argument, I then consider Kierkegaard's more general discussion of irony, unpacking the distinction he draws between irony as a figure of speech and irony as a standpoint. I conclude by examining Kierkegaard's claim that the Apology itself is “splendidly suited for obtaining (...)
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  2. Retoryczność platońskiej "Obrony Sokratesa" (Rhetorical analysis of Plato's "Apology of Socrates").Zbigniew Nerczuk - 2005 - Studia Antyczne I Mediewistyczne 3:43-48.
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  3. Plato's Socrates and His Conception of Philosophy.Eric Brown - forthcoming - In Richard Kraut & David Ebrey (eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Plato, 2nd ed. Cambridge:
    This is a study of Plato's use of the character Socrates to model what philosophy is. The study focuses on the Apology, and finds that philosophy there is the love of wisdom, where wisdom is expertise about how to live, of the sort that only gods can fully have, and where Socrates loves wisdom in three ways, first by honoring wisdom as the gods' possession, testing human claims to it, second by pursuing wisdom, examining himself as he examines (...)
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  4. The Value of Rule in Plato’s Dialogues: A Reply to Melissa Lane.David Ebrey - 2016 - Plato Journal 16:75-80.
    A reply to Melissa Lane's "Antianarchia: interpreting political thought in Plato" In these comments I focus on how to think of antianarchia as an element of Plato's political thought, and in doing so raise some methodological questions about how to read Plato’s dialogues, focusing on what is involved in attributing views to Plato in general.
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  5. Aristophanes in the Apology of Socrates.Sophia A. Stone - 2018 - Dialogues d'Histoire Ancienne 44 (2):65-85.
    Using an interdisciplinary approach to reading Plato's Apology of Socrates, I argue that the counter penalty offered by Socrates, what is commonly translated as maintenance in the Prytaneion, was a literary addition from Plato, resembling comic topoi from Aristophanes. I begin with the accounts we have from Plato and Xenophon, then analyze the culture and context of the Prytaneion. Given the evidence, I provide arguments for why the historical Socrates wouldn't respond with sitēsis in the Prytaneion. I suggest (...)
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  6.  74
    Justice of the Singular: Socrates' Apology and Deconstruction.Mathieu-Pierre Buchler - 2020 - L'Atelier 1 (12):68-89.
    The question of justice in Western philosophy finds its humble beginnings in the interplay of life and death. I am referring here to Plato’s Apology. The Apology is not only a text tracing the fate of the great philosopher Socrates by recounting his final speech before the judges of Athens, but it is also a text that, on a more subtle level, announces the advent of a promising justice that is birthed from death, or, to be more precise, (...)
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  7. Apology Of Socratic Studies.T. Brickhouse & N. Smith - 2003 - Polis 20 (1-2):108-127.
    In this paper, we defend Socratic studies as a research programme against several recent attacks, including at least one recently published in Polis . Critics have argued that the study of Socrates, based upon evidence mostly or entirely derived from some set of Plato's dialogues, is founded upon faulty and indefensible historical or hermeneutical technique. We begin by identifying what we believe are the foundational principles of Socratic studies, as the field has been pursued in recent years, and we (...)
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  8. Kierkegaard's Socratic Point of View.Paul Muench - 2007 - Kierkegaardiana 24:132-162.
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  9. Introduction to "Sophistae".Rafael Ferber - 2014 - In Fulvia de Luise & Alessandro Stavru (eds.), Socratica III. Academia Verlag. pp. 201-203.
    Plato’s “Apology of Socrates” is a masterpiece of the philosophical literature. The question remains as to how much it has been influenced by earlier works, e.g. of Gorgias of Leontinoi and Euripides. Nevertheless, comparative studies on Hippolytus’ defense in Euripides’ tragedy of the same name, on Gorgias’ “Defense of Palamedes” and on Plato’s “Apology” do not exist. The short paper gives an introduction into the status quaestionis.
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  10. Kierkegaard's Socratic Point of View.Paul Muench - 2006; rev. 2009 - In Sara Ahbel-Rappe & Rachana Kamtekar (eds.), Kierkegaardiana. Blackwell.
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  11. Rethinking Plato’s Forms.Necip Fikri Alican & Holger Thesleff - 2013 - Arctos: Acta Philologica Fennica 47:11–47.
    This is a proposal for rethinking the main lines of Plato’s philosophy, including some of the conceptual tools he uses for building and maintaining it. Drawing on a new interpretive paradigm for Plato’s overall vision, the central focus is on the so-called Forms. Regarding the guiding paradigm, we propose replacing the dualism of a world of Forms separated from a world of particulars, with the monistic model of a hierarchically structured universe comprising interdependent levels of reality. Regarding the tools of (...)
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  12. Plato's Theory of Desire.Charles H. Kahn - 1987 - Review of Metaphysics 41 (1):77 - 103.
    My aim here is to make sense of Plato's account of desire in the middle dialogues. To do that I need to unify or reconcile what are at first sight two quite different accounts: the doctrine of eros in the Symposium and the tripartite theory of motivation in the Republic. It may be that the two theories are after all irreconcilable, that Plato simply changed his mind on the nature of human desire after writing the Symposium and before composing (...)
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  13. Plato's Gymnastic Dialogues.Heather Reid - 2020 - In Mark Ralkowski Heather Reid (ed.), Athletics, Gymnastics, and Agon in Plato. Sioux City, IA, USA: pp. 15-30.
    It is not mere coincidence that several of Plato’s dialogues are set in gymnasia and palaistrai (wrestling schools), employ the gymnastic language of stripping, wrestling, tripping, even helping opponents to their feet, and imitate in argumentative form the athletic contests (agōnes) commonly associated with that place. The main explanation for this is, of course, historical. Sophists, orators, and intellectuals of all stripes, including the historical Socrates, really did frequent Athens’ gymnasia and palaistrai in search of ready audiences and potential students. (...)
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  14. Plato's Theory of Knowledge.Ralph Wedgwood - 2018 - In David Brink, Susan Sauvé Meyer & Christopher Shields (eds.), Virtue, Happiness, Knowledge: Themes from the Work of Gail Fine and Terence Irwin. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 33-56.
    An account of Plato’s theory of knowledge is offered. Plato is in a sense a contextualist: at least, he recognizes that his own use of the word for “knowledge” varies – in some contexts, it stands for the fullest possible level of understanding of a truth, while in other contexts, it is broader and includes less complete levels of understanding as well. But for Plato, all knowledge, properly speaking, is a priori knowledge of necessary truths – based on recollection of (...)
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  15. Plato's Theory of Recollection.Norman Gulley - 1954 - Classical Quarterly 4 (3-4):194-.
    This book is an attempt "to give a systematic account of the development of plato's theory of knowledge" (page vii). thus it focuses on the dialogues in which epistemological issues come to the fore. these dialogues are "meno", "phaedo", "symposium", "republic", "cratylus", "theastetus", "phaedrus", "timaeus", "sophist", "politicus", "philebus", and "laws". issues discusssed include the theory of recollection, perception, the difference between belief and knowledge, and mathematical knowledge. (staff).
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  16. Plato's Parmenides: The Conversion of the Soul.Mitchell H. Miller - 1986 - Princeton NJ, University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.
    The Parmenides is arguably the pivotal text for understanding the Platonic corpus as a whole. I offer a critical analysis that takes as its key the closely constructed dramatic context and mimetic irony of the dialogue. Read with these in view, the contradictory characterizations of the "one" in the hypotheses dissolve and reform as stages in a systematic response to the objections that Parmenides earlier posed to the young Socrates' notions of forms and participation, potentially liberating Socrates from his dependence (...)
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  17. Plato's Republic in Its Athenian Context.Debra Nails - 2012 - History of Political Thought 33 (1):1-23.
    Plato's Republic critiques Athenian democracy as practised during the Peloponnesian War years. The diseased city Socrates attempts to purge mirrors Athens in crucial particulars, and his proposals should be evaluated as counter-weights to existing institutions and practices, not as absolutes to be instantiated. Plato's assessment of the Athenian polity incorporates two strategies -- one rhetorical, the other argumentative -- both of which I address. Failure to consider Athens a catalyst for Socrates' arguments has led to the misconception that (...)
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  18. Plato's Protagoras the Hedonist.Joshua Wilburn - 2016 - Classical Philology 113 (3):224-244.
    I advocate an ad hominem reading of the hedonism that appears in the final argument of the Protagoras. I that attribute hedonism both to the Many and to Protagoras, but my focus is on the latter. I argue that the Protagoras in various ways reflects Plato’s view that the sophist is an inevitable advocate for, and himself implicitly inclined toward, hedonism, and I show that the text aims through that characterization to undermine Protagoras’ status as an educator. One of my (...)
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  19. More Than a Reductio: Plato's Method in the Parmenides and Lysis.Evan Rodriguez - 2019 - Études Platoniciennes 15.
    Plato’s Parmenides and Lysis have a surprising amount in common from a methodological standpoint. Both systematically employ a method that I call ‘exploring both sides’, a philosophical method for encouraging further inquiry and comprehensively understanding the truth. Both have also been held in suspicion by interpreters for containing what looks uncomfortably similar to sophistic methodology. I argue that the methodological connections across these and other dialogues relieve those suspicions and push back against a standard developmentalist story about Plato’s method. This (...)
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  20. Plato’s Response to the Third Man Argument in the Paradoxical Exercise of the Parmenides.Bryan Frances - 1996 - Ancient Philosophy 16 (1):47-64.
    An analysis of the Third Man Argument, especially in light of Constance Meinwald's book Plato's Parmenides. I argue that her solution to the TMA fails. Then I present my own theory as to what Plato's solution was.
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  21. Plato’s Absolute and Relative Categories at Sophist 255c14.Matthew Duncombe - 2012 - Ancient Philosophy 32 (1):77-86.
    Sophist 255c14 distinguishes καθ’ αὑτά and πρὸς ἄλλα (in relation to others). Many commentators identify this with the ‘absolute’ and ‘relative’ category distinction. However, terms such as ‘same’ cannot fit into either category. Several reliable manuscripts read πρὸς ἄλληλα (in relation to each other) for πρὸς ἄλλα. I show that πρὸς ἄλληλα is a palaeographically plausible reading which accommodates the problematic terms. I then defend my reading against objections.
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  22. Tyrannized Souls: Plato's Depiction of the ‘Tyrannical Man’.Mark A. Johnstone - 2015 - British Journal for the History of Philosophy 23 (3):423-437.
    In book 9 of Plato's Republic, Socrates describes the nature and origins of the ‘tyrannical man’, whose soul is said to be ‘like’ a tyrannical city. In this paper, I examine the nature of the ‘government’ that exists within the tyrannical man's soul. I begin by demonstrating the inadequacy of three potentially attractive views sometimes found in the literature on Plato: the view that the tyrannical man's soul is ruled by his ‘lawless’ unnecessary appetites, the view that it is (...)
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  23. Plato's Gods and the Way of Ideas.Edward P. Butler - 2011 - Diotima 39:73-87.
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  24. “Συμφωνειν” in Plato's Phaedo.Jyl Gentzler - 1991 - Phronesis 36 (3):265-276.
    In Socrates' account of his earlier investigations into the nature of causation in the "Phaedo", he describes a method that uses hypotheses. He posited as true those propositions that appeared to harmonize ("sumphonein") with his hypothesis and as false those propositions that failed to harmonize with his hypothesis. Earlier commentators on this passage have maintained that it is impossible to give a univocal reading of the occurrences of "sumphonein"' such that the method that Socrates describes is at all reasonable. It (...)
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  25.  11
    Plato's Idea of Poetical Inspiration.Eugène Napoleon Tigerstedt - 1969 - Helsinki.
    The second article, in which the author suggests an analysis of other three authors' state of nature models and tries to define the role of the models in their respective law concepts. The analysis demonstrates that all three models share same basic idea, which is the concept of an independent reasonable individual; this very idea is what these different models are based upon. The concept of an individual itself does not have a substantiation.
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  26. Plato's Explanation of False Belief in the Sophist.Scott Berman - 1996 - Apeiron 29 (1):19-46.
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  27. Anarchic Souls: Plato’s Depiction of the ‘Democratic Man’.Mark Johnstone - 2013 - Phronesis 58 (2):139-59.
    In books 8 and 9 of Plato’s Republic, Socrates provides a detailed account of the nature and origins of four main kinds of vice found in political constitutions and in the kinds of people that correspond to them. The third of the four corrupt kinds of person he describes is the ‘democratic man’. In this paper, I ask what ‘rules’ in the democratic man’s soul. It is commonly thought that his soul is ruled in some way by its appetitive part, (...)
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  28. Making Room for Particulars: Plato’s Receptacle as Space, Not Substratum.Christopher Buckels - 2016 - Apeiron 49 (3):303-328.
    The ‘traditional’ interpretation of the Receptacle in Plato’s Timaeus maintains that its parts act as substrata to ordinary particulars such as dogs and tables: particulars are form-matter compounds to which Forms supply properties and the Receptacle supplies a substratum, as well as a space in which these compounds come to be. I argue, against this view, that parts of the Receptacle cannot act as substrata for those particulars. I also argue, making use of contemporary discussions of supersubstantivalism, against a substratum (...)
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  29. "Plato's Equivocal Wisdom".Mary Lenzi - 2005 - Proceedings of the Society for Ancient Greek Philosophy.
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  30.  97
    Plato's Defense of Justice in the Republic.Rachel Singpurwalla - 2006 - In Gerasimos Xenophon Santas (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Plato's Republic. Blackwell. pp. 263-282.
    Socrates' aim in the Republic is to show that being just is crucial for happiness. In Republic IV, Socrates argues that the just individual is one in whom each part of the soul or psyche performs its proper function, with the result that the individual attains psychic harmony. Commentators have worried, however, that this account of what it is to be just has little to do with being just in the ordinary sense of the term, which involves acting with regard (...)
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  31. A CAÇA À SABEDORIA: a sophia a partir da Apologia de Platão.Carlos Augusto de Oliveira Carvalhar - 2020 - Dissertation, UFRJ, Brazil
    This is a study of sophía from the passage 20d-21a in Plato’s Apology. There, Socrates tries to understand what kind of wisdom he would have, since the Oracle of Delphi stated that no one would be wiser than him. An investigation of historical aspects was made to understand the trial of Socrates and conviction, also a mapping of sophía’s main uses through the corpus platonicum was built, as well an overview of the usage of this concept by others greek (...)
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  32.  4
    Review of POLITIS, V., The Structure of Enquiry in Plato's Early Dialogues (Cambridge University Press, 2015). [REVIEW]Keith Begley - 2021 - Classics Ireland 27:301–303.
    This book has been ably reviewed by others. I am taking a second look at it now on the occasion of the publication of its sequel, a review of which I also provide in this volume. I have had the distinct pleasure of being a student and colleague of Vasilis Politis (VP) since the initiation of the project that led to these monographs, and the great privilege of witnessing the development of the project for more than a decade. VP’s Plato (...)
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  33. Cinematic Spelunking Inside Plato's Cave.Maureen Eckert - 2012 - Glipmse Journal 9:42-49.
    Detailed exploration of the Allegory of the Cave, utilizing notions from film studies, may provide us with insight regarding the identity of the puppet masters in Plato's allegory.
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  34. “Συμφωνειν” in Plato's Phaedo.Jyl Gentzler - 1991 - Phronesis 36 (3):265 - 276.
    In Socrates' account of his earlier investigations into the nature of causation in the "Phaedo", he describes a method that uses hypotheses. He posited as true those propositions that appeared to harmonize ("sumphonein") with his hypothesis and as false those propositions that failed to harmonize with his hypothesis. Earlier commentators on this passage have maintained that it is impossible to give a univocal reading of the occurrences of "sumphonein"' such that the method that Socrates describes is at all reasonable. It (...)
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  35. Plato’s Philosophy of Cognition by Mathematical Modelling.Roman S. Kljujkov & Sergey F. Kljujkov - 2014 - Dialogue and Universalism 24 (3):110-115.
    By the end of his life Plato had rearranged the theory of ideas into his teaching about ideal numbers, but no written records have been left. The Ideal mathematics of Plato is present in all his dialogues. It can be clearly grasped in relation to the effective use of mathematical modelling. Many problems of mathematical modelling were laid in the foundation of the method by cutting the three-level idealism of Plato to the single-level “ideism” of Aristotle. For a long time, (...)
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  36. Plato’s Theory of Love in the ‘Lysis’: A Defence.T. Brian Mooney - 1990 - Irish Philosophical Journal 7 (1/2):131-159.
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  37. Punishment and Psychology in Plato’s Gorgias.J. Clerk Shaw - 2015 - Polis 32 (1):75-95.
    In the Gorgias, Socrates argues that just punishment, though painful, benefits the unjust person by removing injustice from her soul. This paper argues that Socrates thinks the true judge (i) will never use corporal punishment, because such procedures do not remove injustice from the soul; (ii) will use refutations and rebukes as punishments that reveal and focus attention on psychological disorder (= injustice); and (iii) will use confiscation, exile, and death to remove external goods that facilitate unjust action.
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  38. Two Kinds of Lawlessness: Plato's Crito.Ann Congleton - 1974 - Political Theory 2 (4):432-446.
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  39.  90
    Fleeing the Divine: Plato's Rejection of the Ahedonic Ideal in the Philebus.Suzanne Obdrzalek - 2010 - In John Dillon & Brisson Luc (eds.), Plato's Philebus: Selected Papers From the Eighth Symposium Platonicum. pp. 209-214.
    Note: "Next to Godliness" (Apeiron) is an expanded version of this paper. -/- According to Plato's successors, assimilation to god (homoiosis theoi) was the end (telos) of the Platonic system. There is ample evidence to support this claim in dialogues ranging from the Symposium through the Timaeus. However, the Philebus poses a puzzle for this conception of the Platonic telos. On the one hand, Plato states that the gods are beings beyond pleasure while, on the other hand, he argues (...)
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  40.  46
    Pre-Cosmic Necessity in Plato's Timaeus.Elizabeth Jelinek - 2011 - Apeiron 44 (3):287-305.
    One aim of this paper is to bring to the surface the problems with the traditional, non-literal interpretation of the pre-cosmos in the Timaeus. Contrary to this traditional interpretation, I show that Necessity is an ateleological cause capable of bringing about the events in the pre-cosmos, and that Intelligence is a teleological cause that produces effects only for the sake of maximizing the good. I conclude that there are no grounds for supposing that Intelligence is a causal force operating in (...)
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  41. Cross-Examining Socrates: A Defense of the Interlocutors in Plato’s Early Dialogues.Jyl Gentzler - 2001 - Philosophical Review 110 (4):587-590.
    A review of John Beversluis' "Cross-Examining Socrates: A Defense of the Interlocutors in Plato's Early Dialogues".
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  42. The Significance of Plato's Notions of Beauty and Pleasure in the Philosophy of Kant.Jennifer A. McMahon - 2007 - Greek Research in Australia: Proceedings of the Biennial Conference of Greek Studies 2005 6:27-34.
    Plato conceived of the Form of Beauty as quite distinct from the Form of the Good. Beauty was a means to the Good. The ascent theory of the Symposium has suggested to some commentators that Plato envisaged two kinds of beauty, the sensuous and the intellectual, and that to reach the Good we must transcend our sensuous desires and cultivate an appreciation of intellectual beauty. However, in the Laws Plato presents us with a third notion of beauty, which is neither (...)
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  43. Proclus: Commentary on Plato’s Timaeus, Part IV – Proclus on the World Soul. A Translation with Notes and Introduction.Dirk Baltzly - 2009 - Cambridge University Press.
    In the present volume Proclus describes the 'creation' of the soul that animates the entire universe. This is not a literal creation, for Proclus argues that Plato means only to convey the eternal dependence of the World Soul upon higher causes. In his exegesis of Plato's text, Proclus addresses a range of issues in Pythagorean harmonic theory, as well as questions about the way in which the World Soul knows both forms and the visible reality that comprises its body. (...)
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  44. Proclus: Commentary on Plato’s Timaeus, Part III – Proclus on the World’s Body. A Translation with Notes and Introduction,.Dirk Baltzly - 2007 - Cambridge University Press.
    In the present volume Proclus comments on the creation of the body of the universe in Plato's Timaeus.
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  45. Desire and Reason in Plato's Republic.Hendrik Lorenz - 2004 - Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 27:83-116.
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  46. Plato's City-Soul Analogy: The Slow Train to Ordinary Virtue.Nathan Nicol - 2019 - In Sharon M. Meagher, Samantha Noll & Joseph S. Biehl (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of the City. New York: Routledge. pp. 21-31.
    Plato's city-soul analogy underwrites his overarching argument in the Philebus. I sketch the main lines of the analogy, and then defend it against two prominent objections.
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  47.  7
    Plato's Republic.Irfan Ajvazi - manuscript
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  48.  18
    Review of POLITIS, V., Plato’s Essentialism: Reinterpreting the Theory of Forms (Cambridge University Press, 2021). [REVIEW]Keith Begley - 2021 - Classics Ireland 27:304–306.
    In this book, VP builds upon his previous study by shifting focus from the motivation for the ti esti question, to the motivation for the commitment to what is designated by an adequate and true answer to such questions. VP’s aim in this study is to show that what are usually called ‘Forms’ (eidē), rather than being things that have essences, simply are those essences designated by adequate and true answers to ti esti questions. This book is highly recommended for (...)
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  49. Plato's Theology in the Timaeus 29e-30a.Panagiotis Pavlos - 2014 - ΑΚΑΔΗΜΕΙΑ: Researches on Platonism History 9:49-58.
    In this paper the Platonic concepts of Goodness, Belief and Will as they appear in the passage 29d–30a of the Timeaus, are examined . The main intention is, through this examination, to explore whether –and, if yes, why- these notions constitute essential elements of Plato’s theology.
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  50. Plato’s Metaphysical Development Before Middle Period Dialogues.Mohammad Bagher Ghomi - manuscript
    Regarding the relation of Plato’s early and middle period dialogues, scholars have been divided to two opposing groups: unitarists and developmentalists. While developmentalists try to prove that there are some noticeable and even fundamental differences between Plato’s early and middle period dialogues, the unitarists assert that there is no essential difference in there. The main goal of this article is to suggest that some of Plato’s ontological as well as epistemological principles change, both radically and fundamentally, between the early and (...)
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