Results for 'standardized tests'

240 found
Order:
  1. Necessary Assumptions.Gilbert Plumer - 1999 - Informal Logic 19 (1):41-61.
    In their book EVALUATING CRITICAL THINKING Stephen Norris and Robert Ennis say: “Although it is tempting to think that certain [unstated] assumptions are logically necessary for an argument or position, they are not. So do not ask for them.” Numerous writers of introductory logic texts as well as various highly visible standardized tests (e.g., the LSAT and GRE) presume that the Norris/Ennis view is wrong; the presumption is that many arguments have (unstated) necessary assumptions and that readers and (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  2. Phenomenological Argumentative Structure.Gilbert Plumer - 2001 - Argumentation 15 (2):173-189.
    The nontechnical ability to identify or match argumentative structure seems to be an important reasoning skill. Instruments that have questions designed to measure this skill include major standardized tests for graduate school admission, for example, the United States-Canadian Law School Admission Test (LSAT), the Graduate Record Examinations (GRE), and the Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT). Writers and reviewers of such tests need an appropriate foundation for developing such questions--they need a proper representation of phenomenological argumentative structure--for legitimacy, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   3 citations  
  3. What Constitutes a Formal Analogy?Kenneth Olson & Gilbert Plumer - 2002 - In Hans V. Hansen, Christopher W. Tindale, J. Anthony Blair, Ralph H. Johnson & Robert C. Pinto (eds.), Argumentation and its Applications [CD-ROM]. Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation. pp. 1-8.
    There is ample justification for having analogical material in standardized tests for graduate school admission, perhaps especially for law school. We think that formal-analogy questions should compare different scenarios whose structure is the same in terms of the number of objects and the formal properties of their relations. The paper deals with this narrower question of how legitimately to have formal analogy test items, and the broader question of what constitutes a formal analogy in general.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  4. Testing My Own Morality.Massimo Pigliucci - 2012 - Philosophy Now 91 (Jul/Aug):41-41.
    Apparently, I’m a righteous son of a bitch, morally speaking. At least that’s the conclusion I would have to reach if I trusted the results of a morality test I took at the BBC website (bbc.co.uk/labuk/experiments/morality). The test was devised to collect data for a “new theory” that seeks to make sense of human morality in terms of a super-organism concept. Briefly, the idea is that “we, as individuals, behave as if we are part of a bigger ‘superorganism’ when we (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  5. A Review of the LSAT Using Literature on Legal Reasoning.Gilbert E. Plumer - 2000 - Law School Admission Council Computerized Testing Report 97 (8):1-19.
    Research using current literature on legal reasoning was conducted with the goals of (a) determining what skills are most important in good legal reasoning according to such literature, (b) determining the extent to which existing Law School Admission Test item types and subtypes are designed to assess those skills, and (c) suggesting test specifications or new or refined item types and formats that could be developed in the future to assess any important skills that appear [by (a) and (b)] to (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  6. Reasoning From Conflicting Sources.Gilbert Plumer & Kenneth Olson - 2007 - In Hans V. Hansen, Christopher W. Tindale, J. Anthony Blair, Ralph H. Johnson & David M. Godden (eds.), Dissensus and the Search for Common Ground. Proceedings 2007 [CD-ROM]. Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation. pp. 1-9.
    One might ask of two or more texts—what can be inferred from them, taken together? If the texts happen to contradict each other in some respect, then the unadorned answer of standard logic is EVERYTHING. But it seems to be a given that we often successfully reason with inconsistent information from multiple sources. The purpose of this paper is to attempt to develop an adequate approach to accounting for this given.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  7. The Ontology of Biological and Clinical Statistics (OBCS) for Standardized and Reproducible Statistical Analysis.Jie Zheng, Marcelline R. Harris, Anna Maria Masci, Lin Yu, Alfred Hero, Barry Smith & Yongqun He - 2016 - Journal of Biomedical Semantics 7 (53).
    Statistics play a critical role in biological and clinical research. However, most reports of scientific results in the published literature make it difficult for the reader to reproduce the statistical analyses performed in achieving those results because they provide inadequate documentation of the statistical tests and algorithms applied. The Ontology of Biological and Clinical Statistics (OBCS) is put forward here as a step towards solving this problem. Terms in OBCS, including ‘data collection’, ‘data transformation in statistics’, ‘data visualization’, ‘statistical (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  8. Positive Duties, Kant’s Universalizability Tests, and Contradictions.Samuel Kahn - 2020 - Southwest Philosophy Review 36 (1):113-120.
    In this paper I am going to raise a problem for recent attempts to derive positive duties from Kant’s universalizability tests. In particular, I argue that these recent attempts are subject to reductio and that the most obvious way of patching them renders them impracticable. I begin by explaining the motivation for these attempts. Then I describe how they work and begin my attack. I conclude by considering some patches.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  9.  12
    Tests classiques et modernes de la relativité générale.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Albert Einstein a proposé trois tests de relativité générale, appelés plus tard les tests classiques de relativité générale, en 1916 : la précession de l'orbite de Mercure, la déviation de la lumière du soleil, et le décalage vers le rouge gravitationnel de la lumière. Dicke et Schiff ont établi un cadre pour tester la relativité générale , y compris par le biais d'expériences nulles et en utilisant la physique de l'exploration spatiale, de l'électronique et de la matière condensée, (...)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  10.  27
    Modern Tests of Relativistic Gravitational Theories.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Dicke and Schiff established a framework for testing general relativity, including through null experiments and using the physics of space exploration, electronics and condensed matter, such as the Pound-Rebka experiment and laser interferometry. The gravitational lens tests and the temporal delay of light are highlighted by parameter γ of the PPN formalism, equal to 1 for general relativity and with different values in other theories. The BepiColombo mission aims to test the general theory of relativity by measuring the gamma (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  11. On the Road to Losing Ourselves: Religious-Based Immigration Tests.Saba Fatima - 2020 - In Bob Fischer (ed.), Ethics, Left and Right: The Moral Issues That Divide Us. New York, NY, USA: pp. 208-232.
    In this chapter, I deal with some of the reasons why the United States should not institute any implicit or explicit religion-based tests as grounds for immigration. I argue it is extremely impractical to formulate and execute a test that would be effective in rooting out extremists. However, even if such a test could be devised, immigration requirements that link religion to belonging inevitably foster an irrational fear of an entire group of people as perpetual outsiders. Furthermore, religion-based immigration (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  12.  22
    Classic Gravitational Tests of Post-Einsteinian Theories.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Albert Einstein proposed three tests of general relativity, later named the classic tests of general relativity, in 1916: the precession of the perihelion of Mercury's orbit, sun light deflection, and the gravitational redshift of the light. For gravitational testing, the indirect effects of gravity are always used, usually particles that are influenced by gravity. In the presence of gravity, the particles move along curved geodesic lines. The sources of gravity that cause the curvature of spacetime are material bodies, (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  13.  15
    Tests et anomalies des théories de la gravité post-newtoniennes.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Dans la première édition du Principia, Newton considérait que des expériences avec le pendule lui permettraient de déchiffrer les différents types de force de résistance et leur variation avec la vitesse. Habituellement, le « laboratoire » des tests gravitationnels était les corps célestes, les systèmes astrophysiques. Mais ces tests sont perturbés par des effets non gravitationnels. Le « laboratoire » le plus utilisé était le système solaire. Récemment, les scientifiques se sont concentrés sur l'observation des pulsars binaires pour (...)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  14.  21
    Tests and Anomalies of Post-Newtonian Gravitational Theories.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Usually, the "laboratory" of gravitational tests was the celestial bodies, the astrophysical systems. But such tests are disturbed by non-gravitational effects. The most used such "laboratory" was the solar system. Recently, scientists have focused on observing binary pulsars for the verification of gravitational theories, by observing the variations of the orbital period, thus providing indirect evidence for the emission of gravitational radiation. But the experimenter cannot "arrange the lab" according to his needs, nor trigger certain events when he (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  15.  94
    Construct validity in psychological tests – the case of implicit social cognition.Uljana Feest - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 10 (1):1-24.
    This paper looks at the question of what it means for a psychological test to have construct validity. I approach this topic by way of an analysis of recent debates about the measurement of implicit social cognition. After showing that there is little theoretical agreement about implicit social cognition, and that the predictive validity of implicit tests appears to be low, I turn to a debate about their construct validity. I show that there are two questions at stake: First, (...)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  16.  62
    Asylum, Credible Fear Tests, and Colonial Violence.Elena Ruíz & Ezgi Sertler - manuscript
    A credible fear test is an in-depth interview process given to undocumented people of any age arriving at a U.S. port of entry to determine qualification for asylum-seeking. Credible fear tests as a typical immigration procedure demonstrate not only what structural epistemic violence looks like but also how this violence lives in and through the design of asylum policy. Key terms of credible fear tests such as “significant possibility,” “evidence,” “consistency,” and “credibility” can never be neutral in the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  17.  15
    Tests gravitationnels en champ fort.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Lorsque la densité du corps devient suffisamment importante, la relativité générale prédit la formation d'un trou noir. Les étoiles à neutrons d'environ 1,4 masses solaires et les trous noirs sont l'état final de l'évolution des étoiles massives . Habituellement, un trou noir dans une galaxie a joué un rôle important dans sa formation et les structures cosmiques associées. De tels corps fournissent un mécanisme efficace pour l'émission de rayonnement électromagnétique et la formation de microquasars . L'accrétion peut conduire à des (...)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  18.  21
    Tests de la relativité générale et des théories post-einsteiniennes.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Au milieu des années 1970, de nombreuses théories alternatives de la gravité ont été confirmées par des expériences au niveau du système solaire, mais pas au niveau cosmologique. En 1974, Joseph Taylor et Russell Hulse ont découvert le pulsar binaire , dont les impulsions extrêmement stables ont été surveillées par radiotélescope, permettant une mesure précise des paramètres astrophysiques. En 1978, le taux de changement de la période orbitale du système a été mesuré, ce qui a été confirmé par la relativité (...)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  19.  12
    Tests proposés par Einstein et des théories post-einsteiniennes.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Einstein déclare que les théories évoluent à travers des déclarations basées sur l'observation, sous la forme de lois empiriques, à partir desquelles des lois générales sont obtenues. L'intuition et la pensée déductive jouent un rôle important dans ce processus. Après la phase initiale, l'investigateur développe un système de pensée guidée par des données empiriques, construit logiquement à partir d'hypothèses fondamentales (axiomes). La « vérité » d'une théorie résulte de sa corrélation avec un grand nombre d'observations uniques. Pour les mêmes données (...)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  20.  23
    Gravité et tests gravitationnels.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Les théories scientifiques en général, en physique en particulier, sont confirmées (temporairement) par des expériences vérifiant les affirmations et les prédictions des théories, jetant ainsi les bases de la connaissance scientifique. Francis Bacon a été le premier à soutenir le concept d'une expérience cruciale, qui peut décider la validité d'une hypothèse ou d'une théorie. Plus tard, Newton a soutenu que les théories scientifiques sont directement induites par les résultats expérimentaux et les observations, excluant les hypothèses non vérifiées. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.34744.70403 .
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  21.  22
    Heuristics and Tests of Quantum Gravity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    For the attempt to create a gravitational quantum theory, there are several research programs, some of which became obsolete over time due to the higher heuristic power of other programs. The primordial test of any quantum theory of gravity is the reproduction of the successes of general relativity. This involves reconstructing the local geometry from the non-local observables. In addition, quantum gravity should probabilistically predict the large-scale topology of the Universe, which may soon be measurable, and phenomena at the Planck (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  22.  23
    Cosmological Tests of Gravity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    The current cosmological models are built based on general relativity. The solutions of the specific equations, Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker, allow to model the evolution of the universe starting from the Big Bang. Some of the parameters of the universe have been established by observations. Based on these, and other observational data, the models can be tested. Predictions include the initial abundance of chemical elements formed in a period of nucleosynthesis during the Big Bang period, the subsequent structure of the universe, cosmic background (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  23.  19
    Strong Field Gravitational Tests.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    When the density of the body becomes large enough, general relativity predicts the formation of a black hole. The neutron stars of about 1.4 solar masses and the black holes are the final stage for the evolution of the massive stars. Usually a black hole in a galaxy has played an important role in its formation and related cosmic structures. Such bodies provide an efficient mechanism for the emission of electromagnetic radiation and the formation of microquasars. Accretion can lead to (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  24.  29
    Gravity and Gravitational Tests.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Theories in science in general, and in physics in particular, are confirmed (temporarily) by experiments that verify the assertions and predictions of theories, thus laying the groundwork for scientific knowledge. Francis Bacon was the first to support the concept of a crucial experiment, which can decide the validity of a hypothesis or theory. Later, Newton argued that scientific theories are directly induced by experimental results and observations, excluding untested hypotheses. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.33549.08167.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  25. Perfectly Marked, Fair Tests with Unfair Marks.Joseph S. Fulda - 2009 - The Mathematical Gazette 93 (527):256-260.
    Shows how, as a consequence of the Arrow Impossibility Theorem, objectivity in grading is chimerical, given a sufficiently knowledgeable teacher (of his students, not his subject) in a sufficiently small class. -/- PDF available from JStor only; permission to post full version previously granted by journal editors and publisher expired. -/- Unpublished reply posted gratis.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  26.  13
    Tests cosmologiques gravitationnels: l'univers en expansion.Sfetcu Nicolae - manuscript
    Les modèles cosmologiques actuels sont construits sur la base de la relativité générale. Les solutions des équations spécifiques, Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker, permettent de modéliser l'évolution de l'univers à partir du Big Bang . Certains paramètres de l'univers ont été établis par des observations. Sur la base de ces données et d'autres données d'observation, les modèles peuvent être testés . Les observations sur la vitesse d'expansion de l'univers permettent d'estimer la quantité totale de matière, dont certaines théories prédisent que 90% sont de la (...)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  27.  14
    Results of Various Tests of K-Nearest-Neighbour (KNN) to Recognise a Paraphrased Statement.Lucian Green - unknown
    In this paper, I tested a KNN algorithm that could recognise a paraphrased version of a statement entered in the Essay Helper GitHub Repository, which recognises reused statements while questioning the user to write a humanities-style essay.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  28. Assessing Concept Possession as an Explicit and Social Practice.Alessia Marabini & Luca Moretti - 2017 - Journal of Philosophy of Education 51 (4):801-816.
    We focus on issues of learning assessment from the point of view of an investigation of philosophical elements in teaching. We contend that assessment of concept possession at school based on ordinary multiple-choice tests might be ineffective because it overlooks aspects of human rationality illuminated by Robert Brandom’s inferentialism––the view that conceptual content largely coincides with the inferential role of linguistic expressions used in public discourse. More particularly, we argue that multiple-choice tests at schools might fail to accurately (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  29. Navigating Beyond “Here & Now” Affordances—on Sensorimotor Maturation and “False Belief” Performance.Maria Brincker - 2014 - Frontiers in Psychology 5.
    How and when do we learn to understand other people’s perspectives and possibly divergent beliefs? This question has elicited much theoretical and empirical research. A puzzling finding has been that toddlers perform well on so-called implicit false belief (FB) tasks but do not show such capacities on traditional explicit FB tasks. I propose a navigational approach, which offers a hitherto ignored way of making sense of the seemingly contradictory results. The proposal involves a distinction between how we navigate FBs as (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  30.  92
    Ontologies for the Study of Neurological Disease.Alexander P. Cox, Mark Jensen, William Duncan, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Kinga Szigeti, Alan Ruttenberg, Barry Smith & Alexander D. Diehl - 2012 - In Towards an Ontology of Mental Functioning (ICBO Workshop), Third International Conference on Biomedical Ontology. Graz:
    We have begun work on two separate but related ontologies for the study of neurological diseases. The first, the Neurological Disease Ontology (ND), is intended to provide a set of controlled, logically connected classes to describe the range of neurological diseases and their associated signs and symptoms, assessments, diagnoses, and interventions that are encountered in the course of clinical practice. ND is built as an extension of the Ontology for General Medical Sciences — a high-level candidate OBO Foundry ontology that (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  31.  54
    What If Plato Took Surveys? Thoughts About Philosophy Experiments.William M. Goodman - 2012 - In P. Hanna (ed.), An Anthology of Philosophical Studies, Volume 6. Athens Institute for Education and Research.
    The movement called Experimental Philosophy (‘x-Phi’) has now passed its tenth anniversary. Its central insight is compelling: When an argument hinges on accepting certain ‘facts’ about human perception, knowledge, or judging, the evoking of relevant intuitions by thought experiments is intended to make those facts seem obvious. But these intuitions may not be shared universally. Experimentalists propose testing claims that traditionally were intuition-based using real experiments, with real samples. Demanding that empirical claims be empirically supported is certainly reasonable; though experiments (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  32.  20
    Testing the Relativistic Theories of Gravity.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    In developing general relativity, Einstein was led by theoretical criteria of elegance and simplicity. His theory initially encountered "three classic tests": perihelion precession of Mercury's orbit, deflection of light by the Sun, and gravitational redshift of light. There are large differences in predictions between general relativity and classical physics, such as gravitational time dilation, gravitational lensing, gravitational redshift of light, and so on. And there are many relativistic theories of gravity, bifurcated or independent, but Einstein's general theory of relativity (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  33.  71
    Semantic Information Measure with Two Types of Probability for Falsification and Confirmation.Lu Chenguang - manuscript
    Logical Probability (LP) is strictly distinguished from Statistical Probability (SP). To measure semantic information or confirm hypotheses, we need to use sampling distribution (conditional SP function) to test or confirm fuzzy truth function (conditional LP function). The Semantic Information Measure (SIM) proposed is compatible with Shannon’s information theory and Fisher’s likelihood method. It can ensure that the less the LP of a predicate is and the larger the true value of the proposition is, the more information there is. So the (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  34. Particle Creation as the Quantum Condition for Probabilistic Events to Occur.Nicholas Maxwell - 1994 - Physics Letters A 187 (2 May 1994):351-355.
    A new version of quantum theory is proposed, according to which probabilistic events occur whenever new statioinary or bound states are created as a result of inelastic collisions. The new theory recovers the experimental success of orthodox quantum theory, but differs form the orthodox theory for as yet unperformed experiments.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   8 citations  
  35. Can Positive Duties Be Derived From Kant's Formula of Universal Law?Samuel Kahn - 2014 - Kantian Review 19 (1):93-108.
    According to the standard reading of Kant's formula of universal law (FUL), positive duties can be derived from FUL. In this article, I argue that the standard reading does not work. In the first section, I articulate FUL and what I mean by a positive duty. In the second section, I set out an intuitive version of the standard reading of FUL and argue that it does not work. In the third section, I set out a more rigorous version of (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  36. Quality Control for Terms and Definitions in Ontologies and Taxonomies.Jacob Köhler, Katherine Munn, Alexander Rüegg, Andre Skusa & Barry Smith - 2006 - BMC Bioinformatics 7 (212):1-12.
    Background: Ontologies and taxonomies are among the most important computational resources for molecular biology and bioinformatics. A series of recent papers has shown that the Gene Ontology (GO), the most prominent taxonomic resource in these fields, is marked by flaws of certain characteristic types, which flow from a failure to address basic ontological principles. As yet, no methods have been proposed which would allow ontology curators to pinpoint flawed terms or definitions in ontologies in a systematic way. Results: We present (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  37. Quantum Theory Beyond the Physical: Information in Context.Kirsty Kitto, Brentyn Ramm, Laurianne Sitbon & Peter Bruza - 2011 - Axiomathes 21 (2):331-345.
    Measures and theories of information abound, but there are few formalised methods for treating the contextuality that can manifest in different information systems. Quantum theory provides one possible formalism for treating information in context. This paper introduces a quantum inspired model of the human mental lexicon. This model is currently being experimentally investigated and we present a preliminary set of pilot data suggesting that concept combinations can indeed behave non-separably.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   2 citations  
  38. Semnificatie si intelegere.Gheorghe-Ilie Farte - 2006 - Hermeneia 6:27-34.
    La signification est un phénomène social qui ne peut être compris de manière satisfaisante que par rapport à deux entités duales : une communauté et un langage. Elle se manifeste dans la sphère publique en tant que réponse discriminative à un stimulus sémiotique, c'est-à-dire en tant que réaction typique à un stimulus vicariant (qui rend possibles les expériences indirectes). Les modèles ou les schémas d’action sémiotique émergent de la conformité générale des membres d’une communauté à certaines conventions de langage. Si (...)
    Download  
    Translate
     
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  39.  68
    Review – Mathematical Doodlings. [REVIEW]Karl Pfeifer - 2017 - Metapsychology Online Reviews 21 (45):n.p..
    A review of Geoffrey Marnell, Mathematical Doodlings: Curiosities, conjectures, and challenges.
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  40. Experimental Methods for Unraveling the Mind-Body Problem: The Phenomenal Judgment Approach.Victor Argonov - 2014 - Journal of Mind and Behavior 35 (1-2):51-70.
    A rigorous approach to the study of the mind–body problem is suggested. Since humans are able to talk about consciousness (produce phenomenal judgments), it is argued that the study of neural mechanisms of phenomenal judgments can solve the hard problem of consciousness. Particular methods are suggested for: (1) verification and falsification of materialism; (2) verification and falsification of interactionism; (3) falsification of epiphenomenalism and parallelism (verification is problematic); (4) verification of particular materialistic theories of consciousness; (5) a non-Turing test for (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  41. Conversational Implicatures (and How to Spot Them).Michael Blome-Tillmann - 2013 - Philosophy Compass 8 (2):170-185.
    In everyday conversations we often convey information that goes above and beyond what we strictly speaking say: exaggeration and irony are obvious examples. H.P. Grice introduced the technical notion of a conversational implicature in systematizing the phenomenon of meaning one thing by saying something else. In introducing the notion, Grice drew a line between what is said, which he understood as being closely related to the conventional meaning of the words uttered, and what is conversationally implicated, which can be inferred (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   23 citations  
  42. Teleological Essentialism: Generalized.David Rose & Shaun Nichols - 2020 - Cognitive Science 44 (3).
    Natural/social kind essentialism is the view that natural kind categories, both living and non-living natural kinds, as well as social kinds (e.g., race, gender), are essentialized. On this view, artifactual kinds are not essentialized. Our view—teleological essentialism—is that a broad range of categories are essentialized in terms of teleology, including artifacts. Utilizing the same kinds of experiments typically used to provide evidence of essentialist thinking—involving superficial change (study 1), transformation of insides (study 2) and inferences about offspring (study 3)—we find (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   1 citation  
  43. Beyond Good and Bad.William Jimenez-Leal, Samuel Murray, Santiago Amaya & Sergio Barbosa - manuscript
    We argue that people regularly encounter situations involving moral conflicts among permissible options. These scenarios, which some have called morally charged situations, reflect perceived tensions between moral expectations and moral rights. Studying responses to such situations marks a departure from the common emphasis on sacrificial dilemmas and widespread use of single-dimension measures. In 6 experiments (n=1607), we show that people use a wide conceptual arsenal when assessing actions that can be described as suberogatory (bad but permissible) or supererogatory (good but (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  44. What Taylor Swift and Beyoncé Teach Us About Sex and Causes.Robin Dembroff, Issa Kohler-Hausmann & Elise Sugarman - 2020 - University of Pennsylvania Law Review 169 (1):1-12.
    In the consolidated cases Altitude Express v. Zarda, Bostock v. Clayton County, and R.G. & G.R. Harris Funeral Homes v. EEOC, the Supreme Court will decide whether or not Title VII prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. Although the parties disagree as to the appropriate formulation of a but-for test to determine whether or not there was a discriminatory outcome, all parties do agree to the use of such a test, which asks “whether the evidence (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  45.  80
    How to Test the Ship of Theseus.Marta Campdelacreu Arques, Ramón García Moya, Genoveva Martí & Enrico Terrone - manuscript
    The story of the Ship of Theseus is one of the most venerable conundrums in philosophy. Some philosophers consider it a genuine puzzle. Others deny that it is so. It is, therefore, an open question whether there is or there is not a puzzle in the Ship of Theseus story. So, arguably, it makes sense to test empirically whether people perceive the case as a puzzle. Recently, David Rose, Edouard Machery, Stephen Stich and forty-two other researchers from different countries have (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  46. Confirmation Versus Falsificationism.Ray Scott Percival - 2015 - In Robin L. Cautin & Scott O. Lilienfeld (eds.), Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology.
    Confirmation and falsification are different strategies for testing theories and characterizing the outcomes of those tests. Roughly speaking, confirmation is the act of using evidence or reason to verify or certify that a statement is true, definite, or approximately true, whereas falsification is the act of classifying a statement as false in the light of observation reports. After expounding the intellectual history behind confirmation and falsificationism, reaching back to Plato and Aristotle, I survey some of the main controversial issues (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  47. Bad News for Conservatives? Moral Judgments and the Dark Triad Personality Traits: A Correlational Study.Marcus Arvan - 2013 - Neuroethics 6 (2):307-318.
    This study examined correlations between moral value judgments on a 17-item Moral Intuition Survey (MIS), and participant scores on the Short-D3 “Dark Triad” Personality Inventory—a measure of three related “dark and socially destructive” personality traits: Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy. Five hundred sixty-seven participants (302 male, 257 female, 2 transgendered; median age 28) were recruited online through Amazon Mechanical Turk and Yale Experiment Month web advertisements. Different responses to MIS items were initially hypothesized to be “conservative” or “liberal” in line with (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   4 citations  
  48. Integration, Community, and the Medical Model of Social Injustice.Alex Madva - 2019 - Journal of Applied Philosophy 37 (2):211-232.
    I defend an empirically-oriented approach to the analysis and remediation of social injustice. My springboard for this argument is a debate—principally represented here between Tommie Shelby and Elizabeth Anderson, but with much deeper historical roots and many flowering branches—about whether racial-justice advocacy should prioritize integration (bringing different groups together) or community development (building wealth and political power within the black community). Although I incline toward something closer to Shelby’s “egalitarian pluralist” approach over Anderson’s single-minded emphasis on integration, many of Shelby’s (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
  49. How Not to Test for Philosophical Expertise.Regina A. Rini - 2015 - Synthese 192 (2):431-452.
    Recent empirical work appears to suggest that the moral intuitions of professional philosophers are just as vulnerable to distorting psychological factors as are those of ordinary people. This paper assesses these recent tests of the ‘expertise defense’ of philosophical intuition. I argue that the use of familiar cases and principles constitutes a methodological problem. Since these items are familiar to philosophers, but not ordinary people, the two subject groups do not confront identical cognitive tasks. Reflection on this point shows (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark   12 citations  
  50.  36
    Mapping the Patient's Experience: An Applied Ontological Framework For Phenomenological Psychopathology.Rasmus Rosenberg Larsen & Janna Hastings - 2020 - Phenomenology and Mind 18:200-219.
    Mental health research faces a suite of unresolved challenges that have contributed to a stagnation of research efforts and treatment innovation. One such challenge is how to reliably and validly account for the subjective side of patient symptomatology, that is, the patient’s inner experiences or patient phenomenology. Providing a structured, standardised semantics for patient phenomenology would enable future research in novel directions. In this contribution, we aim at initiating a standardized approach to patient phenomenology by sketching a tentative formalisation (...)
    Download  
     
    Export citation  
     
    Bookmark  
1 — 50 / 240