Metaphor

Edited by Alper Yavuz (Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University)
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  1. 'Metaphorically'.Ben Blumson - manuscript
    Not every metaphor can be literally paraphrased by a corresponding simile – the metaphorical meaning of ‘Juliet is the sun’, for example, is not the literal meaning of ‘Juliet is like the sun’. But every metaphor can be literally paraphrased, since if ‘metaphorically’ is prefixed to a metaphor, the result says literally what the metaphor says figuratively – the metaphorical meaning of ‘Juliet is the sun’, for example, is the literal meaning of ‘metaphorically, Juliet is the sun’.
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  2. Why bother? The metaphor of organizing in the conceptual schemes literature.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    Much of the recent philosophy literature on the topic of alternative conceptual schemes responds to Donald Davidson. Davidson makes an argument by applying his system to the question, “Could others have an alternative system of concepts, an alternative conceptual scheme?” But he also remarks on the metaphor of organizing. A number of others have joined in. Why? This material may seem unimportant, but I present some reasons for why, and respond to other remarks, by P.M.S Hacker and Hans-Johann Glock.
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  3. Guilt: The Debt and the Stain.Samuel Reis-Dennis - manuscript
    Abstract: Contemporary analytic philosophers of the “reactive attitudes” tend to share a simple conception of guilt as “self-directed blame”—roughly, an “unpleasant affect” felt in combination with, or in response to, the thought that one has violated a moral requirement, evinced substandard “quality of will,” or is blameworthy. I believe that this simple conception is inadequate. As an alternative, I offer my own theory of guilt’s logic and its connection to morality. In doing so, I attempt to articulate guilt’s defining thought (...)
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  4. An Inferential Impasse in the Theory of Implicatures.Savas L. Tsohatzidis - manuscript
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  5. Willpower as a metaphor.Polaris Koi - forthcoming - In Oxford Studies in Agency and Responsibility vol. 8. Oxford University Press.
    Willpower is a metaphor that is widespread in both common usage and expert literature across disciplines. This paper looks into willpower as a ‘metaphor we live by’, analyzing and exploring the consequences of the tacit information content of the willpower metaphor for agentive self-understanding and efficacy. In addition to contributing to stigma associated with self-control failures, the metaphor causally contributes to self-control failures by obscuring available self-control strategies and instructing agents to superfluous self-control efforts.
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  6. Nag-usap, Kinileg, Nabasa: An Analysis of Humor and Gay Representation in Karlo Victoriano’s Online Comic Series, Sari-Sari Story.Kyle Patrick De Guzman - 2024 - Sikhay 1 (1):1-23.
    The COVID-19 pandemic paved the way for the emergence of the Boys’ Love (BL) theme and genre throughout various media platforms, causing disruptive visibility to the narratives and representation of gays (Andrada in an interview by Antonio, 2021; Ting, 2020). This disruption may have started a dialogue in social media, but this dialogue was only a limited attempt given that most of the discussions have stereotypical representations of gay men (Celso, 2020). This study analyzes how humor was applied in the (...)
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  7. Visual Hybrids and Nonconceptual Aesthetic Perception.Michalle Gal - 2023 - Poetics Today 44 (:4 ( December 2023)):545-570.
    This essay characterizes the perception of the visual hybrid as nonconceptual, introducing the terminology of nonconceptual content theory to aesthetics. The visual hybrid possesses a radical but nonetheless exemplary aesthetic composition and is well established in culture, art, and even design. The essay supplies a philosophical analysis of the results of cross-cultural experiments, showing that while categorization or conceptual hierarchization kicks in when the visual hybrids are juxtaposed with linguistic descriptions, no conceptual scheme takes effect when participants are presented with (...)
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  8. Painterly Aspirations in Poety.John Gibson - 2023 - In Noël Carroll & Jonathan Gilmore (eds.), The Routledge Companion to the Philosophies of Painting and Sculpture. New York: Routledge. pp. 247-56.
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  9. Cross-Domain Descriptions: The Sensory and the Psychological.Michelle Liu - 2023 - Philosophical Quarterly 73 (4):950-964.
    Cross-domain descriptions are descriptions of features pertaining to one domain in terms of vocabulary primarily associated with another domain. Notably, we routinely describe psychological features in terms of the sensory domain and vice versa. Sorrow is said to be ‘bitter’ and fear ‘cold’. Music can be described as ‘happy’, ‘sad’, ‘mournful’, and so on. Such descriptions are rife in both everyday discourse and literary writings. What is it about psychological features that invites descriptions in sensory terms and what is it (...)
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  10. Emojis as Pictures.Emar Maier - 2023 - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy 10.
    I argue that emojis are essentially little pictures, rather than words, gestures, expressives, or diagrams. ???? means that the world looks like that, from some viewpoint. I flesh out a pictorial semantics in terms of geometric projection with abstraction and stylization. Since such a semantics delivers only very minimal contents I add an account of pragmatic enrichment, driven by coherence and nonliteral interpretation. The apparent semantic distinction between emojis depicting entities (like ????) and those depicting facial expressions (like ????) I (...)
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  11. Afro-Brazilian Religions and the Prospects for a Philosophy of Religious Practice.José Eduardo Porcher & Fernando Carlucci - 2023 - Religions 14 (2):146.
    In this paper, we take our cue from Kevin Schilbrack’s admonishment that the philosophy of religion needs to take religious practices seriously as an object of investigation. We do so by offering Afro-Brazilian traditions as an example of the methodological poverty of current philosophical engagement with religions that are not text-based, belief-focused, and institutionalized. Anthropologists have studied these primarily orally transmitted traditions for nearly a century. Still, they involve practices, such as offering and sacrifice as well as spirit possession and (...)
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  12. Darmok and Jalad on the Internet: the importance of metaphors in natural languages and natural language processing.Kristina Šekrst - 2023 - In Amy H. Sturgis & Emily Strand (eds.), Star Trek: Essays Exploring the Final Frontier. Vernon Press. pp. 89-117.
    In a Star Trek: The Next Generation episode, Cpt. Picard is captured and trapped on a planet with an alien captain who speaks a language incompatible with the universal translator, based on their societal historical metaphors. According to Shapiro (2004), the concept of a universal translator removes everything alien from alien languages, and since the Tamarian language refers only to their historical and cultural archetypes, Picard can only establish dialogue by invoking human analogues, such as Gilgamesh. The purpose of this (...)
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  13. UnQuantum Woolf: The Many Intellectual Contexts of To the Lighthouse's Metaphorical Wave-Particle Binary.Xavier Cousin - 2022 - Dissertation, Durham University
    This thesis is a sceptical investigation into the notion that the metaphorical wave-particle binary of Virginia Woolf's To the Lighthouse is related to quantum physics. Indeed, the field of literature and science has employed conceptual similarities as the main means of connecting quantum concepts to novels, however, this has led to a host of scholarly difficulties, prompting the need for a re-examination of analogical linkages. Woolf is the model candidate for such a re-examination, given her historical and philosophical proximity with (...)
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  14. Metaphor Identification beyond Discourse Coherence.Inés Crespo, Andreas Heise & Claudia Picazo - 2022 - Argumenta 1 (15):109-124.
    In this paper, we propose an account of metaphor identification on the basis of contextual coherence. In doing so, we build on previous work by Nicholas Asher and Alex Lascarides that appeals to rhetorical relations in order to explain discourse structure and the constraints on the interpretation of metaphor that follow from it. Applying this general idea to our problem, we will show that rhetorical relations are sometimes insufficient and sometimes inadequate for deciding whether a given utterance is a case (...)
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  15. Exploring Metaphor’s Communicative Effects in Reasoning on Vaccination.Francesca Ervas, Pietro Salis, Cristina Sechi & Rachele Fanari - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13 (1027733.):1-15.
    Introduction: The paper investigates the impact of the use of metaphors in reasoning tasks concerning vaccination, especially for defeasible reasoning cases. We assumed that both metaphor and defeasible reasoning can be relevant to let people understand vaccination as an important collective health phenomenon, by anticipating possible defeating conditions. -/- Methods: We hypothesized that extended metaphor could improve both the argumentative and the communicative effects of the message. We designed an empirical study to test our main hypotheses: participants (N = 196, (...)
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  16. Metaphor, Relevance Theory, and the Curious Nature of Cut-Off Points. A Philosophical Attempt to Understand the Tension Caused by Non-Propositional Effects.Pascal Lemmer - 2022 - Philosophy Kitchen 17 (Metaphor):109-121.
    How to account for metaphor has long been a contentious issue within pragmatics. Revisiting this debate, Wilson & Carston (2019) analyse Grice’s oft-discussed exclusion of metaphor as an empirically unjustified use of cut-off points on the empirical continuum of language and link it a tension between his underlying focus on formalisation contrary to their aim of maximising pragmatics’ empirical scope. In spite of the latter, Relevance Theory’s various own models fail to account for essential characteristics of metaphor caused by certain (...)
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  17. The Aesthetics of Meaning.Nat Trimarchi - 2022 - Cosmos and History : The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy 18 (2):251–304.
    Following C. S. Peirce’s claim that aesthetics precedes ethics and logic, I argue for reconceiving aesthetics as a normative science. The deteriorated relations between these links in the ‘modern mythology’ is associated with art’s decline and apparent indistinguishability from the ‘general aesthetic’ (aided by ‘aesthetics as theory’). ‘Naturalizing’ art, according to F. W. Schelling’s system, is proposed to ameliorate this. Bringing together Peircian semiotics with Schelling’s ‘process metaphysics’ suggests how to restore the historicized split between Art ‘as principle’ and the (...)
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  18. Metáforas conceptuales en la filosofía académica panameña.Fernando Eliécer Vásquez Barba - 2022 - Ideas Y Valores 71 (178):137-160.
    Este trabajo tiene como objetivo principal examinar y determinar las consecuencias de las metáforas contenidas en las obras de Diego Domínguez Caballero, fundador de la filosofía académica panameña. Tales metáforas se volvieron fundamentales para el desarrollo discursivo de la filosofía panameña y también para las ciencias sociales en el país, como la historia y la sociología. Con este fin, recurriremos a la teoría de las metáforas conceptuales desarrollada por Lakoff y otros como una herramienta de ayuda para analizar las que (...)
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  19. La metáfora ecologista en torno a la técnica.Lucas Benet - 2021 - Eikasia Revista de Filosofía 103:187-210.
    Insertar el fenómeno dentro del discurso es posible únicamente cuando se lo arropa conceptualmente. La metáfora cumple la función retórica cuando se aleja de su fenómeno en la vida empírica y surge en la vida simbólica como forma de expresión ulterior y conceptual respecto al fenómeno mentado. Las metáforas no son literales, sino que tienen un sentido figurado. Los límites de la metáfora en torno a la tecnología, en nuestro caso, se delimitan cuando el fenómeno no permite un segundo plano (...)
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  20. Artistic Objectivity: From Ruskin’s ‘Pathetic Fallacy’ to Creative Receptivity.Eli I. Lichtenstein - 2021 - British Journal of Aesthetics 61 (4):505-526.
    While the idea of art as self-expression can sound old-fashioned, it remains widespread—especially if the relevant ‘selves’ can be social collectives, not just individual artists. But self-expression can collapse into individualistic or anthropocentric self-involvement. And compelling successor ideals for artists are not obvious. In this light, I develop a counter-ideal of creative receptivity to basic features of the external world, or artistic objectivity. Objective artists are not trying to express themselves or reach collective self-knowledge. However, they are also not disinterested (...)
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  21. Moral Message on Metaphoric Short Children Narrative.F. I. Muzaki - 2021 - Linguistica Antverpiensia 3 (3):5330 - 5345.
    This study aims to (1) to describe moral messages that are packaged in metaphors in international children's narrative, (2) to analyze moral messages that are packaged in metaphors in international children's narrative, and (3) to encode the metaphors used in international children's narrative. This research uses theme analysis. The research data in this study are the form of phrases, clauses, and sentences that contain moral messages. The data source of this research is children's narrative on the internet. This research produces (...)
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  22. Metaphor Abuse in the Time of Coronavirus: A Reply to Lynne Tirrell.Shane J. Ralston - 2021 - Southwest Philosophy Review 37 (1):89-99.
    In the time of Coronavirus, it is perhaps as good a time as any to comment on the use and abuse of metaphors. One of the worst instances of metaphor abuse-especially given the recent epidemiological crisis-is Lynne Tirrell's notion of toxic speech. In the foregoing reply piece, I analyze Tirrell's metaphor and reveal how it blinds us to the liberating power of public speech. Lynne Tirrell argues that some speech is, borrowing from field of Epidemiology, toxic in the sense that (...)
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  23. The Communicative Functions of Metaphors Between Explanation and Persuasion.Maria Grazia Rossi & Fabrizio Macagno - 2021 - In Fabrizio Macagno & Alessandro Capone (eds.), Inquiries in philosophical pragmatics. Theoretical developments. Cham, Switzerland: Springer. pp. 171-191.
    In the literature, the pragmatic dimension of metaphors has been clearly acknowledged. Metaphors are regarded as having different possible uses, especially pursuing persuasion. However, an analysis of the specific conversational purposes that they can be aimed at achieving in a dialogue and their adequacy thereto is still missing. In this chapter, we will address this issue focusing on the classical distinction between the explanatory and persuasive uses of metaphors, which is, however, complex to draw at an analytical level and often (...)
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  24. Minds, materials and metaphors.Adam Toon - 2021 - Philosophy 96 (2):181-203.
    What is the relationship between mental states and items of material culture, like notebooks, maps or lists? The extended mind thesis offers an influential and controversial answer to this question. According to ExM, items of material culture can form part of the material basis for our mental states. Although ExM offers a radical view of the location of mental states, it fits comfortably with a traditional, representationalist account of the nature of those states. I argue that proponents of ExM would (...)
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  25. On Cognition and the Tension of Live Metaphors.Patrick Bloniasz - 2020 - Meta: Research in Hermeneutics, Phenomenology, and Practical Philosophy 7 (2):499-516.
    ‘Live’, or novel, metaphors continue to occupy an interesting space in both the philosophical and cognitive sphere. One metaphorical theory, offered by French philosopher Paul Ricœur, is thoroughly fleshed out in relation to other dominant linguistic accounts of metaphor. Ricœur’s theory is underrepresented in much of contemporary neurolinguistic literature even though it bears great resemblance to many features of modern theories in cognitive science; as such, the current article attempts to establish a clear connection between Ricœur’s work and the cognitive (...)
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  26. Visuality of Metaphors.Michalle Gal - 2020 - Cognitive Linguistic Study 7 (1):58 - 77.
    This paper proposes to define metaphor as a visual-material structure, the sphere of which is ontological rather than cognitive or conceptual. It argues that the essence of metaphor, as either an aesthetic or a communicative unit or both, resides in the qualitative dimension and appearance, or even materiality, of the metaphorical medium and its form. The paper thus offers a new theory of metaphor, focusing on the medium of metaphor, which composes and transfigures or reconstructs its target anew: a composition (...)
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  27. How can metaphors communicate arguments?Fabrizio Macagno - 2020 - Intercultural Pragmatics 3 (17):335-363.
    Metaphors are considered as instruments crucial for persuasion. However, while their emotive, communicative and persuasive effects are the focus of different studies and discussions, the core of their persuasive function, namely their argumentative dimension, is almost neglected. This paper addresses the problem of explaining how metaphors can communicate arguments, and how it is possible to reconstruct and justify them. To this purpose, a distinction is drawn between the arguments that are communicated metaphorically and reconstructed “top down,” namely based on relevance (...)
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  28. Visual Metaphors and Cognition: Revisiting the Non-Conceptual.Michalle Gal - 2019 - In Kristof Nyiri & Andras Benedek (eds.), Perspective on Visual Learning, Vol. 1. The Victory of the Pictorial Aga. Budapest, Hungary: pp. 79-90.
    The paper analyzes the visual aspect of metaphors, offering a new theory of metaphor that characterizes its syntactic structure, material composition and visuality as its essence. It will accordingly present the metaphorical creating or transfiguring, as well as conceiving or understanding, of one thing as a different one, as a visual ability. It is a predication by means of producing non-conventional compositions – i.e., by compositional, or even aesthetic, means. This definition is aimed to apply to the various kinds of (...)
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  29. Andrés Bello as a Prefiguration of Richard Rorty.Sergio A. Gallegos - 2019 - Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 55 (2):161-174.
    The present paper argues that the Venezuelan-Chilean philosopher Andrés Bello constitutes an important but heretofore neglected prefiguration of Richard Rorty. I argue for this thesis by articulating first an Inter-American philosophical narrative (based on previous work by Alex Stehn and Carlos Sanchez) that enables me to highlight certain common characteristics in philosophical projects that flourished across the Americas. Having done this, I show that Rorty’s anti-representationalism and anti-foundationalism are prefigured in Bello’s most important philosophical treatise, Filosofía del Entendimiento, to the (...)
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  30. Metaphors and problematic understanding in chronic care communication.Fabrizio Macagno & Maria Grazia Rossi - 2019 - Journal of Pragmatics 151:103-117.
    Metaphors can be used as crucial tools for reaching shared understanding, especially where an epistemic imbalance of knowledge is at stake. However, metaphors can also represent a risk in intercultural or cross-cultural interactions, namely in situations characterised by little or deficient common ground between interlocutors. In such cases, the use of metaphors can lead to misunderstandings and cause communicative breakdowns. The conditions defining when metaphors promote, and hinder understanding have not been analyzed in detail, especially in intracultural contexts. This study (...)
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  31. Metaphor in Analytic Philosophy and Cognitive Science.Jakub Mácha - 2019 - Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 75 (4):2247-2286.
    This article surveys theories of metaphor in analytic philosophy and cognitive science. In particular, it focuses on contemporary semantic, pragmatic and non-cognitivist theories of linguistic metaphor and on the Conceptual Metaphor Theory advanced by George Lakoff and his school. Special attention is given to the mechanisms that are shared by nearly all these approaches, i.e. mechanisms of interaction and mapping between conceptual domains. Finally, the article discusses several recent attempts to combine these theories of linguistic and conceptual metaphor into a (...)
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  32. The nerves of the Leviathan: On metaphor and Hobbes' theory of punishment.Alejo Stark - 2019 - Otro Siglo 3 (2):26-42.
    Thomas Hobbes’ theory of punishment plays a constitutive role in the Leviathan’s theory of state sovereignty. Despite this, Hobbes’ justification for punishment is widely found to be discrepant, weak, inconsistent, and contradictory. Two dominant tendencies in the scholarship attempt to stabilize the Leviathan’s justification for the state’s right to punish by either identifying it with the sovereign’s right to war or by elaborating a theory of authorization within the state. In contrast, by tracing the deployments of the metaphor that Hobbes (...)
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  33. Metaphors and Other “Abnormalities”.Danilo Suster - 2019 - In Bojan Borstner, Onič Tomaž & Zupan Simon (eds.), From Language to Philosophy and Back. Od jezika k filozofiji in nazaj: Festschrift ob 75-letnici Dunje Jutronić. Maribor: Univerzitetna založba Univerze v Mariboru. pp. 185-202.
    Metaphorical statements surprise us as literal falsehoods, but the interpretation reveals a special motive for the figurative use of the language. Donald Davidson objects to nonliteral meaning: “to suppose a metaphor can be effective only by conveying a coded message is like thinking a joke or a dream makes some statement which a clever interpreter can restate in plain prose.” Taking this remark as my starting point I analyze interpretative strategies for metaphors, jokes, riddles and counterfactual conditionals – all of (...)
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  34. Etkileşimci Metafor Kuramının Eleştirisi.Alper Yavuz - 2019 - Kilikya Felsefe Dergisi / Cilicia Journal of Philosophy 6 (1):1-14.
    Öz: Bu yazıda Elisabeth Camp'in metafor kuramını eleştireceğim. Bu kurama göre metaforik anlam metaforik olarak kullanılan terimin işaret ettiği şeyin karakterizasyonunun bir başka şeyin karakterizasyonu ile etkileşimi yoluyla ortaya çıkar. Bu etkileşim beraberinde metaforun önemli bilişsel özelliklerinden biri olan olarak-görme etkisini zorunlu olarak getirir. Ben bu kuramın açıklamaya çalıştığı dilsel olguyu gereksiz yere karmaşıklaştırdığını savunacağım. Söz konusu olgu etkileşime gerek olmadan da açıklanabilir. Camp'in tersine, olarak-görme etkisinin metafor için özsel olmadığını savunacağım. Bunların yanı sıra Camp'in metafor kuramının kimi değillenmiş metafor (...)
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  35. Two analogy strategies: the cases of mind metaphors and introspection.Eugen Fischer - 2018 - Connection Science 30 (2):211-243.
    Analogical reasoning is often employed in problem-solving and metaphor interpretation. This paper submits that, as a default, analogical reasoning addressing these different tasks employs different mapping strategies: In problem-solving, it employs analogy-maximising strategies (like structure mapping, Gentner & Markman 1997); in metaphor interpretation, analogy-minimising strategies (like ATT-Meta, Barnden 2015). The two strategies interact in analogical reasoning with conceptual metaphors. This interaction leads to predictable fallacies. The paper supports these hypotheses through case-studies on ‘mind’-metaphors from ordinary discourse, and abstract problem-solving in (...)
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  36. Conversational Exculpature.Daniel Hoek - 2018 - Philosophical Review 127 (2):151-196.
    Conversational exculpature is a pragmatic process whereby information is subtracted from, rather than added to, what the speaker literally says. This pragmatic content subtraction explains why we can say “Rob is six feet tall” without implying that Rob is between 5'0.99" and 6'0.01" tall, and why we can say “Ellen has a hat like the one Sherlock Holmes always wears” without implying Holmes exists or has a hat. This article presents a simple formalism for understanding this pragmatic mechanism, specifying how, (...)
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  37. Poetry and Ethics: Inventing Possibilities in Which We Are Moved to Action and How We Live Together.Obiora Ike, Andrea Grieder & Ignace Haaz (eds.) - 2018 - Geneva, Switzerland: Globethics Publications.
    This book on the topic of ethics and poetry consists of contributions from different continents on the subject of applied ethics related to poetry. It should gather a favourable reception from philosophers, ethicists, theologians and anthropologists from Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America and allows for a comparison of the healing power of words from various religious, spiritual and philosophical traditions. The first part of this book presents original poems that express ethical emotions and aphorism related to a philosophical questioning (...)
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  38. Metaphor, Truth, and Representation.Richmond Kwesi - 2018 - In Piotr Stalmaszczyk (ed.), Objects of Inquiry in Philosophy of Language and Linguistics. Berlin, Germany: pp. 117-146.
    Do metaphorical sentences express facts or represent states of affairs in the world? Can a metaphorical statement tell us ‘what there is’? These questions raise the issue of whether metaphors can be used to make truth-claims; that is, whether metaphors can be regarded as assertions that can be evaluated as true or false. Some theorists on metaphor have argued for a negative answer to the above-mentioned questions. They have claimed, among others, that metaphorical utterances are non-descriptive uses of language (Blackburn (...)
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  39. Resemblance and Identity in Wallace Stevens' Conception of Metaphor.Richmond Kwesi - 2018 - In Jakub Mácha & Kacper Bartczak (eds.), Wallace Stevens: Poetry, Philosophy, and Figurative Language. Berlin, Germany: Peter Lang. pp. 113-137.
    Aristotle and the classical rhetoricians conceived of metaphor as a figure of speech in which one thing is given a name or an attribute of another thing on the basis of some resemblance that exists between the two things. Wallace Stevens conceived of metaphor not as the production of pre-existing resemblances observed in nature but the “creation of resemblance by the imagination” (NA: 72). Resemblance, and not identity, according to Stevens, is the fundamental relation between the two terms of metaphor. (...)
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  40. Metaphors: Midwives of conceptual change in science.Xingming Li - 2018 - Journal of Human Cognition 2 (2):17-31.
    The American philosopher of science Kuhn, in the 1980s, studied the scientific revolution in depth from a unique perspective of the philosophy of language, seeing it as a change in the language of science, especially in scientific vocabularies or dictionaries. In this process of transformation, metaphors, analogies, and models play the role of midwives in the birth of new concepts. Based on the analysis of Kuhn's relevant insights, this paper identifies the nature and use of metaphor, analogy and model as (...)
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  41. «Тяжко його було переїхати і стрілити у ворота». Жаргонізми в українській футбольній лексиці першої половини хх століття.Iryna Protsyk - 2018 - Language: Classic – Modern – Postmodern 4:95-110.
    Предметом розгляду в статті є жаргонізми, що функціювали в українському футбольному дискурсі першої половини ХХ ст. Проаналізовано семантику жаргонних лексичних одиниць та покласифіковано їх на групи за тематичним принципом. Детально зосереджено увагу на з’ясуванні особливостей жаргонізмів із тематичної групи назв футбольних дій та процесів, зокрема описано їхнє походження та способи їхнього творення.
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  42. Compound figures: priority and speech-act structure.Mihaela Popa-Wyatt - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (1):141-161.
    Compound figures are a rich, and under-explored area for tackling fundamental issues in philosophy of language. This paper explores new ideas about how to explain some features of such figures. We start with an observation from Stern that in ironic-metaphor, metaphor is logically prior to irony in the structure of what is communicated. Call this thesis Logical-MPT. We argue that a speech-act-based explanation of Logical-MPT is to be preferred to a content-based explanation. To create this explanation we draw on Barker’s (...)
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  43. Go Figure: Understanding Figurative Talk.Mihaela Popa-Wyatt - 2017 - Philosophical Studies 174 (1):1-12.
    We think and speak in figures. This is key to our creativity. We re-imagine one thing as another, pretend ourself to be another, do one thing in order to achieve another, or say one thing to mean another. This comes easily because of our abilities both to work out meaning in context and re-purpose words. Figures of speech are tools for this re-purposing. Whether we use metaphor, simile, irony, hyperbole, and litotes individually, or as compound figures, the uses are all (...)
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  44. Personal Ideals as Metaphors.Nick Riggle - 2017 - Journal of the American Philosophical Association 3 (3):265-283.
    What is it to have and act on a personal ideal? Someone who aspires to be a philosopher might imaginatively think “I am a philosopher” by way of motivating herself to think hard about a philosophical question. But doing so seems to require her to act on an inaccurate self-description, given that she isn’t yet what she regards herself as being. J. David Velleman develops the thought that action-by-ideal involves a kind of fictional self-conception. My aim is to expand our (...)
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  45. Law as Trope: Framing and Evaluating Conceptual Metaphors.Lloyd Harold Anthony - 2016 - Pace Law Review 37.
    Like others who work with language, many lawyers no doubt appreciate good kennings. However, metaphors also play a much deeper role in thought and law than style, ornament, or verbal virtuosity. As we shall see, metaphors play a necessary role in our categories of thought. As a result, metaphors are a necessary part of thought itself, including legal thought.
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  46. The Denial of the World from an Impartial View.Bruno Contestabile - 2016 - Contemporary Buddhism 17 (1):49-61.
    The Buddhist denial of the world seems hard to defend if it is confronted with empirical data. Surveys on subjective life satisfaction consistently report that the majority is satisfied with their lives. Is the desire to escape from the cycle of rebirth a sign of risk-aversion or even irrationality? How would an impartial observer evaluate the world? -/- An impartial view is achieved by interpreting the surveys on life satisfaction as probability distributions for life’s risks and chances. It turns out (...)
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  47. Che cosa sia l’uomo per Agostino: la lucerna, il cavaliere, il centauro e la biga.Ilaria Ferretti - 2016 - In Fabrizio Amerini & Stefano Caroti (eds.), Ipsum verum non videbis nisi in philosophiam totus intraveris. Studi in onore di Franco De Capitani. Parma: E-theca OnLineOpenAccess Edizioni. pp. 281-339.
    A famous programmatic phrase from the Soliloquia shows how the young Augustine, in his thirties, had a clear idea of what one had to investigate in order to attain a knowledge of God: “Deum et animam scire cupio”. Here, Augustine established a link between two objects of research. Starting from this relation, this article explores Augustine’s anthropological doctrine, and focuses on four images used by Augustine to illustrate the human condition: (1) the lamp (lucerna), symbolizing the man composed by a (...)
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  48. Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Classical Theory: Affinities Rather than Divergences.Jakub Mácha - 2016 - In Piotr Stalmaszczyk (ed.), From Philosophy of Fiction to Cognitive Poetics. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang. pp. 93-115.
    Conceptual Metaphor Theory makes some strong claims against so-called Classical Theory which spans the accounts of metaphors from Aristotle to Davidson. Most of these theories, because of their traditional literal-metaphorical distinction, fail to take into account the phenomenon of conceptual metaphor. I argue that the underlying mechanism for explaining metaphor bears some striking resemblances among all of these theories. A mapping between two structures is always expressed. Conceptual Metaphor Theory insists, however, that the literal-metaphorical distinction of Classical Theories is empirically (...)
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  49. Ricoeurs Theorie der Metapher. Anmerkungen aus analytischer Perspektive.Sebastian Gäb - 2015 - In Peter Welsen & Dominic Harion (eds.), Der lange Weg der Interpretation. Perspektiven auf Paul Ricoeurs hermeneutische Phänomenologie. Regensburg, Deutschland: pp. 87-104.
    Presents Ricoeurs theory of metaphor as an attempt to give a conceptual analysis of metaphor and discusses various criticisms.
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  50. A Formal Model of Metaphor in Frame Semantics.Vasil Penchev - 2015 - In Proceedings of the 41st Annual Convention of the Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and the Simulation of Behaviour. New York: Curran Associates, Inc.. pp. 187-194.
    A formal model of metaphor is introduced. It models metaphor, first, as an interaction of “frames” according to the frame semantics, and then, as a wave function in Hilbert space. The practical way for a probability distribution and a corresponding wave function to be assigned to a given metaphor in a given language is considered. A series of formal definitions is deduced from this for: “representation”, “reality”, “language”, “ontology”, etc. All are based on Hilbert space. A few statements about a (...)
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