Results for 'Michael Rubin'

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Michael Rubin
University of Western Australia
Michael J. Rubin
Mary Washington College
  1. National Center for Biomedical Ontology: Advancing Biomedicine Through Structured Organization of Scientific Knowledge.Daniel L. Rubin, Suzanna E. Lewis, Chris J. Mungall, Misra Sima, Westerfield Monte, Ashburner Michael, Christopher G. Chute, Ida Sim, Harold Solbrig, M. A. Storey, Barry Smith, John D. Richter, Natasha Noy & Mark A. Musen - 2006 - Omics: A Journal of Integrative Biology 10 (2):185-198.
    The National Center for Biomedical Ontology is a consortium that comprises leading informaticians, biologists, clinicians, and ontologists, funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Roadmap, to develop innovative technology and methods that allow scientists to record, manage, and disseminate biomedical information and knowledge in machine-processable form. The goals of the Center are (1) to help unify the divergent and isolated efforts in ontology development by promoting high quality open-source, standards-based tools to create, manage, and use ontologies, (2) to create (...)
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  2. Should Environmental Ethicists Fear Moral Anti-Realism?Anne Schwenkenbecher & Michael Rubin - 2019 - Environmental Values 28 (4):405-427.
    Environmental ethicists have been arguing for decades that swift action to protect our natural environment is morally paramount, and that our concern for the environment should go beyond its importance for human welfare. It might be thought that the widespread acceptance of moral anti-realism would undermine the aims of environmental ethicists. One reason is that recent empirical studies purport to show that moral realists are more likely to act on the basis of their ethical convictions than anti-realists. In addition, it (...)
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  3. Non-Naturalistic Moral Explanation.Samuel Baron, Mark Colyvan, Kristie Miller & Michael Rubin - 2019 - Synthese 198 (5):4273-4294.
    It has seemed, to many, that there is an important connection between the ways in which some theoretical posits explain our observations, and our reasons for being ontologically committed to those posits. One way to spell out this connection is in terms of what has become known as the explanatory criterion of ontological commitment. This is, roughly, the view that we ought to posit only those entities that are indispensable to our best explanations. Our primary aim is to argue that (...)
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  4.  69
    Über Die Fähigkeit, an Zwei Orten Gleichzeitig Zu Sein Ein Mehr-Felder-Ansatz Zum Verständnis Menschlichen Erlebens : MIT Diskussionsbeiträgen von Michael B. Buchholz, Jürgen Kriz, Rainer Kästl.Gerhard Stemberger - 2018 - Gestalt Theory 40 (2):207-234.
    Summary In 1915 the Danish psychologist Edgar Rubin describes in his famous work on figure-ground perception, the phenomenon that when you look attentively at a picture, a second, virtual ego arises, breaking away from the viewer-ego to wander around in the picture along the contours of the depicted. In 1982, German Gestalt psychologist Edwin Rausch expanded this observation of the emergence of a second phenomenal ego to the conclusion that not only does a second phenomenal ego emerge, but with (...)
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  5. Comment on Richard Rubin’s “Santayana and the Arts” and Richard Rubin’s Reply.Martin Coleman & Richard M. Rubin - 2016 - Overheard in Seville 34 (34):59-61.
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  6. World Governance.Jovan Babić (ed.) - 2013, Paperback - Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Press.
    In the age of globalization, and increased interdependence in the world that we face today, there is a question we may have to raise: Do we need and could we attain a world government, capable of insuring the peace and facilitating worldwide well-being in a just and efficient manner? In the twenty chapters of this book, some of the most prominent living philosophers give their consideration to this question in a provocative and engaging way. Their essays are not only of (...)
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  7. Michael Devitt, Designation Reviewed by Michael McKinsey. [REVIEW]Michael McKinsey - 1983 - Philosophy in Review 3 (3):112-116.
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  8.  76
    Michael Brady,. Emotional Insight: The Epistemic Role of Emotional Experience. New York: Oxford University Press, 2013. Pp. 204. $45.00. [REVIEW]Michael Milona - 2015 - Ethics 125 (2):567-571.
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  9. Rational and Social Agency: The Philosophy of Michael Bratman, Edited by Manuel Vargas and Gideon Yaffe.Michael Brent - 2018 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 15 (3):371-374.
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  10. What Type of Type I Error? Contrasting the Neyman–Pearson and Fisherian Approaches in the Context of Exact and Direct Replications.Mark Rubin - 2021 - Synthese 198 (6):5809–5834.
    The replication crisis has caused researchers to distinguish between exact replications, which duplicate all aspects of a study that could potentially affect the results, and direct replications, which duplicate only those aspects of the study that are thought to be theoretically essential to reproduce the original effect. The replication crisis has also prompted researchers to think more carefully about the possibility of making Type I errors when rejecting null hypotheses. In this context, the present article considers the utility of two (...)
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  11.  79
    Monismo e dualismo entre estado e direito: breves considerações acerca do conceito de estado de direito em Habermas.Rubin Souza - 2017 - Revista INQUIETUDE, GOIÂNIA 8 (2):34-50.
    Habermas frequentemente adota o termo Estado de direito na sua obra Direito e democracia: entre facticidade e validade. O objetivo deste artigo, então, consiste na investigação da possibilidade desse conceito, no seu fundamento e na apresentação dos problemas dele decorrentes, contrapondo-o especificamente a sua antítese, isto é, ao monismo entre Estado e direito de Kelsen. Ocorre que a filosofia habermasiana, conforme entendimento do artigo, implica a adoção de uma teoria dualista entre os conceitos de Estado e de direito. Observa-se, assim, (...)
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  12.  63
    A aquisição da virtude em Aristóteles a partir da obra "Learning to be good" de M. F. Burnyeat -uma discussão sobre a ressocialização e a pena de morte.Rubin Souza - 2014 - CONPEDI - Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa Em Pós-Graduação Em Direito 1 (1):1-17.
    Pretendeu-se estudar a aquisição da virtude em Aristóteles a partir da interpretação de M. F. Burnyeat. Para esse, a virtude aristotélica exige dimensões cognitivas e emocionais, sendo que ao aprendiz não basta conhecer os princípios e as regras gerais da ação, mas deve ter internalizado, através do hábito, uma vontade de praticar ações nobres e justas. Compete ao sujeito virtuoso, portanto, ter o conhecimento do que é correto (the that), assim como, subsidiariamente, a justificativa do porquê é apropriada determinada ação (...)
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  13. Das System der Ideen. Zur perspektivistisch-metaphilosophischen Begründung der Vernunft im Anschluss an Kant und Fichte.Michael Lewin - 2021 - Freiburg / München: Alber.
    [GER] Michael Lewin geht es in seinem Buch nicht nur um philosophiehistorische Perspektiven der Kant- und Fichte-Forschung, sondern ebenso sehr um die Sache selbst: das Konzept der Vernunft im engeren Sinne als ein potenziell wohlbegründetes und in zeitgenössischen Kontexten fortführbares Forschungsprogramm. Dabei sind verschiedene, in einer Reihe der Reflexion stehende Theoriegefüge bewusst zu machen, die sich aus den vielfältigen Arten und Funktionen der Ideen ergeben, mit deren Hilfe die Vernunft das Verstehen und Wollen steuert und selbstreflexiv wird. Nach der (...)
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  14. Do P Values Lose Their Meaning in Exploratory Analyses? It Depends How You Define the Familywise Error Rate.Mark Rubin - 2017 - Review of General Psychology 21:269-275.
    Several researchers have recently argued that p values lose their meaning in exploratory analyses due to an unknown inflation of the alpha level (e.g., Nosek & Lakens, 2014; Wagenmakers, 2016). For this argument to be tenable, the familywise error rate must be defined in relation to the number of hypotheses that are tested in the same study or article. Under this conceptualization, the familywise error rate is usually unknowable in exploratory analyses because it is usually unclear how many hypotheses have (...)
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  15.  32
    O sentido das normas para Kelsen.Rubin Souza - 2017 - Revista PERI 9 (1):158-176.
    O artigo tem como objetivo apresentar o problema da determinação do sentido das normas para o Kelsen considerando a flexibilidade do quadro de interpretações. Expõe, primeiramente, a suposta transição do conceito de interpretação normativa, passando de um formalismo-normativismo restritivo para um realismo jurídico a partir das suas últimas obras; em um segundo momento apresenta o decorrente conflito ainda atual constituído por essas reformulações. Finalmente, defende a hipótese de superação da dicotomia formalismo-normativismo versus realismo jurídico através de uma leitura realista normativista.
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  16.  30
    CRÍTICA À LEITURA DE HANS KELSEN SOBRE A FILOSOFIA DO DIREITO DE THOMAS HOBBES.Rubin Souza - 2014 - Revista da AJURIS 41 (133):303-318.
    O artigo analisa a leitura crítica de Hans Kelsen acerca da concepção jurídico-política de Thomas Hobbes, considerando críticas posteriores à própria interpretação de Kelsen. Para tanto, investigou-se primeiramente a posição de Kelsen sobre o jusnaturalismo buscando esclarecer conceitos centrais como os do ser e dever-ser e como o autor os associa a Hobbes. Nesse sentido, observouse a limitação da leitura de Kelsen em relação à filosofia jurídica do autor – uma doutrina jusnaturalista metafísica, tendo na regra de ouro o fundamento (...)
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  17.  25
    Virtù e Fortuna em Maquiavel a partir da obra 'O Príncipe'.Rubin Souza - 2014 - Jus Navigandi 1 (1):1-15.
    O trabalho busca esclarecer dois pontos centrais da Filosofia política de Maquiavel – as figuras da Virtù e da Fortuna. A virtú deve ser vista como uma forma do livre-arbítrio do governante, sendo a principal variável na condução do principado.Destaca-se, também, a utilização da variável nacontestação aos valorestradicionais. Já a Fortuna constitui-se na indeterminabilidade de parte dos resultadosdo governo: ela deve ser dominada, conquistada para o benefício do príncipe.
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  18.  22
    Breves considerações sobre a epistemologia de David Hume.Rubin Souza - 2014 - Jus Navigandi 1 (1):1-12.
    O objetivo do artigofoi especular sobre a epistemologia proposta por David Hume (1711-1776), especificamente a perspectiva empirista e cética. Procurou-se, assim, expor os principais conceitos da sua filosofia, especialmente acrítica à concepção de causalidade, o problema da probabilidade e os conceitos de percepções, imagens e ideias. Finalmente buscou-se expor uma interpretação que entende haver um ceticismo mitigado no autor e a superação de uma teoria do conhecimento exclusivamente psicológica.
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  19.  17
    A INSUPERÁVEL SEPARAÇÃO ENTRE SER E DEVER-SER EM HANS KELSEN E A NEGAÇÃO DE TAL DISTINÇÃO PELA TRADIÇÃO JUSNATURALISTA.Rubin Souza - 2013 - Revista Seara Filosófica 1 (7):65-75.
    A separação entre o ser, isto é, o ato, e o dever-ser, ou seja, o sentido de comando, permissão etc.. do ato é parte fundamental para o entendimento da epistemologia proposta por Hans Kelsen. Dessa discriminação entre o ser e o dever-ser há o principal argumento do autor para a separação do direito das ciências causais e, principalmente, a superação da falácia naturalista no âmbito teórico e moral. Nesse sentido, também o artigo se propôs a analisar a refutação de Kelsen (...)
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  20.  16
    Breves considerações sobre a origem social das normas jurídicas e morais e a fundamentação da Teoria Pura do Direito de Hans Kelsen.Rubin Souza - 2012 - Jus Navigandi 1 (1):1-10.
    Com este artigo procura-se introduzir a questão da origem social das normas morais e jurídicas a partir da obra de Hans Kelsen e solucionar, de forma breve, o problema da conciliação do método lógico-transcendental da Teoria pura com a filosofia positivista e empirista do autor.
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  21.  16
    A Irrelevância Do Conceito De Soberania Para Hans Kelsen.Rubin Souza - 2016 - Revista Direito E Política 11 (2):632-652.
    O presente artigo aborda o problema da soberania para Hans Kelsen. Tem como objetivo analisar a posição do autor sobre o tema (especialmente através do texto Sovereignty), traçando paralelamente algumas considerações. Ocorre que para Kelsen o conceito de soberania mostra-se impreciso a partir da doutrina tradicional. Ainda, mesmo superando essa doutrina e a teoria dualista, também o conteúdo do direito nacional e internacional permanece inalterado. Portanto, prova-se a irrelevância de tal para a teoria jurídica.
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  22.  12
    Breves considerações críticas acerca do método para uma filosofia intercultural de Raúl Fornet- Betancourt.Rubin Souza - 2014 - CONPEDI - Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa Em Pós-Graduação Em Direito 1 (1):1-22.
    O artigo investigou o método para uma filosofia intercultural a partir da Ibero-América, de Raul Fornet-Betancourt. Partiu-se especificamente do texto do autor para posteriormente fornecer considerações críticas aos seus posicionamentos. Nesse sentido, analisou-se a originalidade do tema, a filosofia da libertação como modelo de diálogo intercultural, seus pressupostos hermenêuticos e epistemológicos e, por fim, o pensamento ibero-americano como base para uma filosofia intercultural. No final do trabalho apresentou-se seis críticas ao texto estudado – o problema da arrogância e dissimulação filosófica, (...)
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  23.  12
    A INSUPERÁVEL SEPARAÇÃO ENTRE SER E DEVER-SER EM HANS KELSEN E A NEGAÇÃO DE TAL DISTINÇÃO PELA TRADIÇÃO JUSNATURALISTA.Rubin Souza - 2013 - Seara Filosófica 1 (7):65-75.
    A separação entre o ser, isto é, o ato, e o dever-ser, ou seja, o sentido de comando, permissão etc.. do ato é parte fundamental para o entendimento da epistemologia proposta por Hans Kelsen. Dessa discriminação entre o ser e o dever-ser há o principal argumento do autor para a separação do direito das ciências causais e, principalmente, a superação da falácia naturalista no âmbito teórico e moral. Nesse sentido, também o artigo se propôs a analisar a refutação de Kelsen (...)
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  24. When Does HARKing Hurt? Identifying When Different Types of Undisclosed Post Hoc Hypothesizing Harm Scientific Progress.Mark Rubin - 2017 - Review of General Psychology 21:308-320.
    Hypothesizing after the results are known, or HARKing, occurs when researchers check their research results and then add or remove hypotheses on the basis of those results without acknowledging this process in their research report (Kerr, 1998). In the present article, I discuss three forms of HARKing: (1) using current results to construct post hoc hypotheses that are then reported as if they were a priori hypotheses; (2) retrieving hypotheses from a post hoc literature search and reporting them as a (...)
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  25.  10
    As capacidades dos cidadãos e sua representação. Segunda conferência da obra "O LiberalismoPolítico"de John Rawls.Rubin Souza - 2009 - Jus Navigandi 1 (1):1-19.
    Pretendeu-se dissertar sobre a segunda conferênciada obra O Liberalismo Político de John Rawls. A exposição trata dométodo de justificação do autor, concentrada nos termos racionalidade(concepção de bem) e razoabilidade (senso de justiça);subsequentemente aborda as variáveis – cooperação, voluntariedade,autonomia, limites do juízo, discordância, pluralismo, reciprocidade,imparcialidade, publicidade, justificação, democracia e tolerância. Nessesentido, parte-se da obra supracitada para a sistematização da teoria eresolução de problemas: uma referência histórica em Kant; uma respostaàs hipóteses comunitaristas; a convergência de modelos de justificação,sobretudo uma deontologia com uma (...)
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  26. Compassionate Phenomenal Conservatism.Michael Huemer - 2007 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 74 (1):30–55.
    I defend the principle of Phenomenal Conservatism, on which appearances of all kinds generate at least some justification for belief. I argue that there is no reason for privileging introspection or intuition over perceptual experience as a source of justified belief; that those who deny Phenomenal Conservatism are in a self-defeating position, in that their view cannot be both true and justified; and that thedemand for a metajustification for Phenomenal Conservatism either is an easily met demand, or is an unfair (...)
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  27.  9
    Técnicas pedagógicas passo-a-passo de ensino de filosofia para o jurista desocupado.Rubin Souza - 2014 - Captura Criptica: Direito, Política E Atualidade 1 (4):9-19.
    O objetivo do trabalho é auxiliar o jurista desocupado responsável pelo ensino da cadeira de filosofia do direito. A situação mais frequente nas faculdades de direito são as aulas de filosofia e de outras cadeiras do eixo fundamental serem tapeadas por qualquer bacharel sem nada melhor para fazer. Ocorre que tais ociosos juristas muitas vezes se veem receosos quando instituídos nos seus cargos, isso porque não possuem qualquer conhecimento na matéria em que lecionam, ao mesmo tempo em que são lançados (...)
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  28.  9
    A fundamentação da moralidade kantiana e o seu correlato princípio do Direito.Rubin Souza - 2012 - Jus Navigandi 1 (1):1-17.
    Pretendeu-se dissertar acerca do conceito kantiano do Direito a partir da gênese da sua fundamentação moral, ressaltando a aprioricidade da mesma e seu reflexo na doutrina jurídica. Contrariamente ao moral sense da Filosofia empirista inglesa, a moralidade kantiana baseia-se completamente a priori, abdicando de uma antropologia em sua exposição e formulando-se como pura metafísica, a partir de conhecimentos abstratos. Coaduna à concepção de moralidade kantiana o seu conceito de Direito, que também não possui, portanto, qualquer fundamento na experiência. Desta forma, (...)
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  29. The Costs of HARKing.Mark Rubin - 2022 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 73 (2):535-560.
    Kerr coined the term ‘HARKing’ to refer to the practice of ‘hypothesizing after the results are known’. This questionable research practice has received increased attention in recent years because it is thought to have contributed to low replication rates in science. The present article discusses the concept of HARKing from a philosophical standpoint and then undertakes a critical review of Kerr’s twelve potential costs of HARKing. It is argued that these potential costs are either misconceived, misattributed to HARKing, lacking evidence, (...)
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  30.  8
    A Filosofia do Direito de Kant segundo Paul Guyer a partir do oitavo capítulo da obra “Kant”.Rubin Souza - 2012 - Jus Navigandi 1 (1):1-17.
    O presente artigo apresentou a interpretação de Paul Guyer acerca da filosofia jurídica de Kant, delimitando seu objeto no oitavo capítulo da obra “Kant”. Procurou-se, por estratégia argumentativa, fixar-se no texto de Guyer, apresentado claramente o problema envolvido, a sua hipótese a e análise das variáveis. Concomitantemente procurou-se inserir uma breve apreciação crítica na forma de notas numéricas. Buscou-se, dessa forma, privilegiar o texto do autor, focando especificamente nos problemas por ele apresentado, sem, contudo, deixar de apresentar uma crítica aos (...)
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  31. The Traffic in Women: Notes on the "Political Economy" of Sex.Gayle Rubin - 1975 - In Rayna R. Reiter (ed.), Toward an Anthropology of Women. Monthly Review Press. pp. 157--210.
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  32. Varieties of Cognitive Achievement.J. Adam Carter, Benjamin W. Jarvis & Katherine Rubin - 2015 - Philosophical Studies 172 (6):1603-1623.
    According to robust virtue epistemology , knowledge is type-identical with a particular species of cognitive achievement. The identification itself is subject to some criticism on the grounds that it fails to account for the anti-luck features of knowledge. Although critics have largely focused on environmental luck, the fundamental philosophical problem facing RVE is that it is not clear why it should be a distinctive feature of cognitive abilities that they ordinarily produce beliefs in a way that is safe. We propose (...)
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  33.  14
    A DECISÃO JUDICIAL E A FILOSOFIA RELATIVISTA DE HANS KELSEN: UMA ABORDAGEM HERMENÊUTICA.Rubin Souza - 2015 - Dissertation,
    A presente dissertação tem como tema central a proposta da abordagem hermenêutica da decisão judicial em Hans Kelsen considerando seu relativismo filosófico. No primeiro momento expõe a concepção de decisão judicial no autor e as suas reformulações conceituais no decorrer das suas obras – as passagens do formalismo normativista das primeiras obras até o ceticismo de regras na Teoria geral das normas. Também propõe a dissolução entre as leituras formalistas e realistas através da possibilidade de uma leitura realista moderada. Após (...)
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  34.  18
    O ANTIPLATONISMO KELSENIANO COMO NÚCLEO ARGUMENTATIVO DA SUA TEORIA JURÍDICA.Rubin Souza - 2019 - Dissertation,
    A tese defende o antiplatonismo presente na obra do jusfilósofo Hans Kelsen como núcleo argumentativo da sua teoria do direito. Sustenta que a melhor definição da sua filosofia não é como neokantiana, mas como antiplatônica. Isso porque há significativas inconsistências na sua interpretação de Kant, o que a impossibilita de ser classificada como tal. Além, encontra-se na sua leitura sobre Platão referências mais sólidas e conceitos mais claros. Nesse sentido, advoga a hipótese de que a obra de Kelsen tem como (...)
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  35. A Radical Solution to the Species Problem.Michael T. Ghiselin - 1974 - Systematic Zoology 23:536-44.
    Traditionally, species have been treated as classes. In fact they may be considered individuals. The logical term “individual” has been confused with a biological synonym for “organism.” If species are individuals, then: 1) their names are proper, 2) there cannot be instances of them, 3) they do not have defining properties, 4) their constituent organisms are parts, not members. “ Species " may be defined as the most extensive units in the natural economy such that reproductive competition occurs among their (...)
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  36.  44
    When to Adjust Alpha During Multiple Testing: A Consideration of Disjunction, Conjunction, and Individual Testing.Mark Rubin - 2021 - Synthese 199 (3-4):10969-11000.
    Scientists often adjust their significance threshold during null hypothesis significance testing in order to take into account multiple testing and multiple comparisons. This alpha adjustment has become particularly relevant in the context of the replication crisis in science. The present article considers the conditions in which this alpha adjustment is appropriate and the conditions in which it is inappropriate. A distinction is drawn between three types of multiple testing: disjunction testing, conjunction testing, and individual testing. It is argued that alpha (...)
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  37. Understanding Implicit Bias: Putting the Criticism Into Perspective.Michael Brownstein, Alex Madva & Bertram Gawronski - 2020 - Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 101 (2):276-307.
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  38. Damage to the Prefrontal Cortex Increases Utilitarian Moral Judgements.Michael Koenigs, Liane Young, Ralph Adolphs, Daniel Tranel, Fiery Cushman, Marc Hauser & Antonio Damasio - 2007 - Nature 446 (7138):908-911.
    The psychological and neurobiological processes underlying moral judgement have been the focus of many recent empirical studies1–11. Of central interest is whether emotions play a causal role in moral judgement, and, in parallel, how emotion-related areas of the brain contribute to moral judgement. Here we show that six patients with focal bilateral damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), a brain region necessary for the normal generation of emotions and, in particular, social emotions12–14, produce an abnor- mally ‘utilitarian’ pattern of (...)
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  39. Classical Opacity.Michael Caie, Jeremy Goodman & Harvey Lederman - 2020 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 101 (3):524-566.
    Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, EarlyView.
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  40. A Liberal Realist Answer to Debunking Skeptics: The Empirical Case for Realism.Michael Huemer - 2016 - Philosophical Studies 173 (7):1983-2010.
    Debunking skeptics claim that our moral beliefs are formed by processes unsuited to identifying objective facts, such as emotions inculcated by our genes and culture; therefore, they say, even if there are objective moral facts, we probably don’t know them. I argue that the debunking skeptics cannot explain the pervasive trend toward liberalization of values over human history, and that the best explanation is the realist’s: humanity is becoming increasingly liberal because liberalism is the objectively correct moral stance.
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  41. Preserving the Principle of One Object to a Place: A Novel Account of the Relations Among Objects, Sorts, Sortals, and Persistence Conditions.Michael B. Burke - 1994 - Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 54 (3):591-624.
    This article offers a novel, conservative account of material constitution, one that incorporates sortal essentialism and features a theory of dominant sortals. It avoids coinciding objects, temporal parts, relativizations of identity, mereological essentialism, anti-essentialism, denials of the reality of the objects of our ordinary ontology, and other departures from the metaphysic implicit in ordinary ways of thinking. Defenses of the account against important objections are found in Burke 1997, 2003, and 2004, as well as in the often neglected six paragraphs (...)
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  42. Individualism, Structuralism, and Climate Change.Michael Brownstein, Alex Madva & Daniel Kelly - 2021 - Environmental Communication 1.
    Scholars, journalists, and activists working on climate change often distinguish between “individual” and “structural” approaches to decarbonization. The former concern choices individuals can make to reduce their “personal carbon footprint” (e.g., eating less meat). The latter concern changes to institutions, laws, and other social structures. These two approaches are often framed as oppositional, representing a mutually exclusive forced choice between alternative routes to decarbonization. After presenting representative samples of this oppositional framing of individual and structural approaches in environmental communication, we (...)
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  43. “Repeated Sampling From the Same Population?” A Critique of Neyman and Pearson’s Responses to Fisher.Mark Rubin - 2020 - European Journal for Philosophy of Science 10 (3):1-15.
    Fisher criticised the Neyman-Pearson approach to hypothesis testing by arguing that it relies on the assumption of “repeated sampling from the same population.” The present article considers the responses to this criticism provided by Pearson and Neyman. Pearson interpreted alpha levels in relation to imaginary replications of the original test. This interpretation is appropriate when test users are sure that their replications will be equivalent to one another. However, by definition, scientific researchers do not possess sufficient knowledge about the relevant (...)
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  44. An Evaluation of Four Solutions to the Forking Paths Problem: Adjusted Alpha, Preregistration, Sensitivity Analyses, and Abandoning the Neyman-Pearson Approach.Mark Rubin - 2017 - Review of General Psychology 21:321-329.
    Gelman and Loken (2013, 2014) proposed that when researchers base their statistical analyses on the idiosyncratic characteristics of a specific sample (e.g., a nonlinear transformation of a variable because it is skewed), they open up alternative analysis paths in potential replications of their study that are based on different samples (i.e., no transformation of the variable because it is not skewed). These alternative analysis paths count as additional (multiple) tests and, consequently, they increase the probability of making a Type I (...)
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  45. David Lewis in the Lab: Experimental Results on the Emergence of Meaning.Justin Bruner, Cailin O’Connor, Hannah Rubin & Simon M. Huttegger - 2018 - Synthese 195 (2):603-621.
    In this paper we use an experimental approach to investigate how linguistic conventions can emerge in a society without explicit agreement. As a starting point we consider the signaling game introduced by Lewis. We find that in experimental settings, small groups can quickly develop conventions of signal meaning in these games. We also investigate versions of the game where the theoretical literature indicates that meaning will be less likely to arise—when there are more than two states for actors to transfer (...)
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  46. The Markov Blankets of Life: Autonomy, Active Inference and the Free Energy Principle.Michael David Kirchhoff - 2018 - Journal of the Royal Society Interface 15 (138).
    This work addresses the autonomous organization of biological systems. It does so by considering the boundaries of biological systems, from individual cells to Home sapiens, in terms of the presence of Markov blankets under the active inference scheme—a corollary of the free energy principle. A Markov blanket defines the boundaries of a system in a statistical sense. Here we consider how a collective of Markov blankets can self-assemble into a global system that itself has a Markov blanket; thereby providing an (...)
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  47. Persistent Disagreement and Polarization in a Bayesian Setting.Michael Nielsen & Rush T. Stewart - 2021 - British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 72 (1):51-78.
    For two ideally rational agents, does learning a finite amount of shared evidence necessitate agreement? No. But does it at least guard against belief polarization, the case in which their opinions get further apart? No. OK, but are rational agents guaranteed to avoid polarization if they have access to an infinite, increasing stream of shared evidence? No.
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  48. Sceptical Theism and Evidential Arguments From Evil.Michael J. Almeida & Graham Oppy - 2003 - Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81 (4):496 – 516.
    Sceptical theists--e.g., William Alston and Michael Bergmann--have claimed that considerations concerning human cognitive limitations are alone sufficient to undermine evidential arguments from evil. We argue that, if the considerations deployed by sceptical theists are sufficient to undermine evidential arguments from evil, then those considerations are also sufficient to undermine inferences that play a crucial role in ordinary moral reasoning. If cogent, our argument suffices to discredit sceptical theist responses to evidential arguments from evil.
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  49. Recent Work in the Epistemology of Understanding.Michael Hannon - 2021 - American Philosophical Quarterly 58 (3):269-290.
    The philosophical interest in the nature, value, and varieties of human understanding has swelled in recent years. This article will provide an overview of new research in the epistemology of understanding, with a particular focus on the following questions: What is understanding and why should we care about it? Is understanding reducible to knowledge? Does it require truth, belief, or justification? Can there be lucky understanding? Does it require ‘grasping’ or some kind of ‘know-how’? This cluster of questions has largely (...)
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  50. Review of Ronald Rubin, Silencing the Demon's Advocate: The Strategy of Descartes' Meditations[REVIEW]Jorge Secada - 2009 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2009 (4).
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