Results for 'Armin W. Schulz'

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Armin W. Schulz
University of Kansas
  1. Introduction: The Biology of Psychological Altruism.Justin Garson & Armin W. Schulz - 2016 - Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 56:1-2.
    I develop a distinction between two types of psychological hedonism. Inferential hedonism (or “I-hedonism”) holds that each person only has ultimate desires regarding his or her own hedonic states (pleasure and pain). Reinforcement hedonism (or “R–hedonism”) holds that each person's ultimate desires, whatever their contents are, are differentially reinforced in that person’s cognitive system only by virtue of their association with hedonic states. I’ll argue that accepting R-hedonism and rejecting I-hedonism provides a conciliatory position on the traditional altruism debate, and (...)
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  2. Armin Schulz, Efficient Cognition. [REVIEW]Zoe Drayson - 2018 - Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews:online.
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  3. Knowing That P Without Believing That P.Blake Myers-Schulz & Eric Schwitzgebel - 2013 - Noûs 47 (2):371-384.
    Most epistemologists hold that knowledge entails belief. However, proponents of this claim rarely offer a positive argument in support of it. Rather, they tend to treat the view as obvious and assert that there are no convincing counterexamples. We find this strategy to be problematic. We do not find the standard view obvious, and moreover, we think there are cases in which it is intuitively plausible that a subject knows some proposition P without—or at least without determinately—believing that P. Accordingly, (...)
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  4. Molecular Interactions. On the Ambiguity of Ordinary Statements in Biomedical Literature.Stefan Schulz & Ludger Jansen - 2009 - Applied ontology (4):21-34.
    Statements about the behavior of biochemical entities (e.g., about the interaction between two proteins) abound in the literature on molecular biology and are increasingly becoming the targets of information extraction and text mining techniques. We show that an accurate analysis of the semantics of such statements reveals a number of ambiguities that have to be taken into account in the practice of biomedical ontology engineering: Such statements can not only be understood as event reporting statements, but also as ascriptions of (...)
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  5. Inherent Emotional Quality of Human Speech Sounds.Blake Myers-Schulz, Maia Pujara, Richard C. Wolf & Michael Koenigs - 2013 - Cognition and Emotion 27 (6):1105-1113.
    During much of the past century, it was widely believed that phonemes--the human speech sounds that constitute words--have no inherent semantic meaning, and that the relationship between a combination of phonemes (a word) and its referent is simply arbitrary. Although recent work has challenged this picture by revealing psychological associations between certain phonemes and particular semantic contents, the precise mechanisms underlying these associations have not been fully elucidated. Here we provide novel evidence that certain phonemes have an inherent, non-arbitrary emotional (...)
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  6. W.V. Quine, Immanuel Kant Lectures, translated and introduced by H.G. Callaway.H. G. Callaway & W. V. Quine (eds.) - 2003 - Frommann-Holzboog.
    This book is a translation of W.V. Quine's Kant Lectures, given as a series at Stanford University in 1980. It provide a short and useful summary of Quine's philosophy. There are four lectures altogether: I. Prolegomena: Mind and its Place in Nature; II. Endolegomena: From Ostension to Quantification; III. Endolegomena loipa: The forked animal; and IV. Epilegomena: What's It all About? The Kant Lectures have been published to date only in Italian and German translation. The present book is filled out (...)
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  7.  67
    I.W.Kelly Logical Consistency and the Child.I. W. Kelly - 1981 - Philosophy of the Social Sciences 11 (March):15-18.
    The Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget contends that children below the age of 12 see no necessity for the logical law of non-contradiction. I argue this view is problematic. First of all, Piaget's dialogues with children which are considered supportive of this position are not clearly so. Secondly, Piaget underestimates the necessary nature of following the logical law of non-contradiction in everyday discourse. The mere possibility of saying something significant and informative at all presupposes that the law of non-contradiction is enforced.
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  8. From Otto Neurath’s Isotype to Multiple Worlds of Visual Media.Armin Reautschnig & Karl H. Müller - 2011 - In David Wagner, Wolfram Pichler, Elisabeth Nemeth & Richard Heinrich (eds.), Publications of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society - N.S. 17. Berlin: De Gruyter. pp. 195-214.
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  9. The Ontology of the Gene Ontology.Barry Smith, Jennifer Williams & Steffen Schulze-Kremer - 2003 - In AMIA 2003 Symposium Proceedings. Washington, DC: AMIA. pp. 609-613.
    The rapidly increasing wealth of genomic data has driven the development of tools to assist in the task of representing and processing information about genes, their products and their functions. One of the most important of these tools is the Gene Ontology (GO), which is being developed in tandem with work on a variety of bioinformatics databases. An examination of the structure of GO, however, reveals a number of problems, which we believe can be resolved by taking account of certain (...)
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  10. Lmn-2 Interacts with Elf-2. On the Meaning of Common Statements in Biomedical Literature.Stefan Schulz & Ludger Jansen - 2006 - In KR-MED 2006 – Biomedical Ontology in Action. Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Formal Knowledge Representation. MD. pp. 37-45.
    Statements about the behavior of biological entities, e.g. about the interaction between two proteins, abound in the literature on molecular biology and are increasingly becoming the targets of information extraction and text mining techniques. We show that an accurate analysis of the semantics of such statements reveals a number of ambiguities that is necessary to take into account in the practice of biomedical ontology engineering. Several concurring formalizations are proposed. Emphasis is laid on the discussion of biological dispositions.
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  11.  97
    On Saying and Showing: A. W. Moore.A. W. Moore - 1987 - Philosophy 62 (242):473 - 497.
    This essay constitutes an attempt to probe the very idea of a saying/showing distinction of the kind that Wittgenstein advances in the Tractatus—to say what such a distinction consists in, to say what philosophical work it has to do, and to say how we might be justified in drawing such a distinction. Towards the end of the essay the discussion is related to Wittgenstein’s later work. It is argued that we can profitably see this work in such a way that (...)
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  12.  29
    Negligence*: KENNETH W. SIMONS.Kenneth W. Simons - 1999 - Social Philosophy and Policy 16 (2):52-93.
    Faced with the choice between creating a risk of harm and taking a precaution against that risk, should I take the precaution? Does the proper analysis of this trade-off require a maximizing, utilitarian approach? If not, how does one properly analyze the trade-off? These questions are important, for we often are uncertain about the effects of our actions. Accordingly, we often must consider whether our actions create an unreasonable risk of injury — that is, whether our actions are negligent.
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  13. Adapting Clinical Ontologies in Real-World Environments.Holger Stenzhorn, Stefan Schulz, Martin Boeker & Barry Smith - 2008 - Journal of Universal Computer Science 14 (22):3767-3780.
    The desideratum of semantic interoperability has been intensively discussed in medical informatics circles in recent years. Originally, experts assumed that this issue could be sufficiently addressed by insisting simply on the application of shared clinical terminologies or clinical information models. However, the use of the term ‘ontology’ has been steadily increasing more recently. We discuss criteria for distinguishing clinical ontologies from clinical terminologies and information models. Then, we briefly present the role clinical ontologies play in two multicentric research projects. Finally, (...)
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  14.  61
    What Are These Familiar Words Doing Here?: A. W. Moore.A. W. Moore - 2002 - Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 51:147-171.
    This essay is concerned with six linguistic moves that we commonly make, each of which is considered in turn. These are: stating rules of representation; representing things categorically; mentioning expressions; saying truly or falsely how things are; saying vaguely how things are; and stating rules of rules of representation. A common-sense view is defended of what is involved in our doing each of these six things against a much more sceptical view emanating from the idea that linguistic behavior is fundamentally (...)
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  15.  65
    On Loving God Contrary to a Divine Command: Demystifying Ockham’s Quodlibet III.14.Eric W. Hagedorn - 2021 - Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy 9:221-244.
    Among the most widely discussed of William of Ockham’s texts on ethics is his Quodlibet III, q. 14. But despite a large literature on this question, there is no consensus on what Ockham’s answer is to the central question raised in it, specifically, what obligations one would have if one were to receive a divine command to not love God. (Surprisingly, there is also little explicit recognition in the literature of this lack of consensus.) Via a close reading of the (...)
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  16.  77
    „Sapientis est ordinare“. Die ordnungsstiftende Kompetenz des Weisen – ein Gang durch die Philosophiegeschichte in systematischer Absicht.Armin G. Wildfeuer - 2021 - In Thomas Möllenbeck & Ludger Schulte (eds.), Weisheit – Spiritualität der Menschheit. Münster: Aschendorff. pp. 151-191.
    Philosophie stellt den Bezug zur Weisheit bereits in ihrem Namen (philo-sophia) her. So selbstverständlich dies ist, so spannungsgeladen ist deren Verhältnis. Denn Philosophie und Weisheit sind Korrespondenz- und Reibungsbegriffe gleichermaßen. Es mag daher auf den ersten Blick verwundern oder eben nicht, dass sich seit der Neuzeit der bis dahin konstitutive Zusammenhang von Philosophie und Weisheit zunehmend auflöst bis dahin, dass es die Philosophie seit dem 19. Jahrhundert weit von sich weist, mit Weisheit überhaupt in einen Zusammenhang gebracht zu werden (1.) (...)
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  17. Are the Concepts of Mass in Quantum Theory and in General Relativity the Same?Armin Nikkhah Shirazi - manuscript
    The predominant approaches to understanding how quantum theory and General Relativity are related to each other implicitly assume that both theories use the same concept of mass. Given that despite great efforts such approaches have not yet produced a consistent falsifiable quantum theory of gravity, this paper entertains the possibility that the concepts of mass in the two theories are in fact distinct. It points out that if the concept of mass in quantum mechanics is defined such that it always (...)
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  18.  79
    Uwagi Autora Traktatu Polityczno-Filozoficznego w odpowiedzi na recenzję Katarzyny Haremskiej i notę recenzyjną Pawła Kłoczowskiego.W. Julian Korab-Karpowicz - 2017 - Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 7 (1):175-179.
    Tractatus Politico-Philosophicus (Political-Philosophical Treatise) of W. Julian Korab-Karpowicz proposes a new idea-system. Ideas concerning different topics related to politics are introduced. The work aims to establish the principles of good governance and of a happy society, and to open up new directions for the future development of humankind. It is also in part a critique of the epistemology of early Wittgenstein as presented in his Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. It argues that one can speak about politics and ethics with sense, and that (...)
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  19. Anatomical Information Science.Barry Smith, Jose Mejino, Stefan Schulz, Anand Kumar & Cornelius Rosse - 2005 - In A. G. Cohn & D. M. Mark (eds.), Spatial Information Theory. Springer. pp. 149-164.
    The Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) is a map of the human body. Like maps of other sorts – including the map-like representations we find in familiar anatomical atlases – it is a representation of a certain portion of spatial reality as it exists at a certain (idealized) instant of time. But unlike other maps, the FMA comes in the form of a sophisticated ontology of its objectdomain, comprising some 1.5 million statements of anatomical relations among some 70,000 anatomical kinds. (...)
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  20. Theories and Things.W. V. O. Quine (ed.) - 1981 - Harvard University Press.
    Things and Their Place in Theories Our talk of external things, our very notion of things, is just a conceptual apparatus that helps us to foresee and ...
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  21.  33
    “L'ètica de la creença” (W. K. Clifford) & “La voluntat de creure” (William James).Alberto Oya, William James & W. K. Clifford - 2016 - Quaderns de Filosofia 3 (2):123-172.
    Catalan translation, introductory study and notes on W. K. Clifford’s “The Ethics of Belief”. Published in Clifford, W.K. “L’ètica de la creença”. Quaderns de Filosofia, vol. III, n. 2 (2016), pp. 129–150. // Catalan translation, introductory study and notes on William James’s “The Will to Believe”. Published in James, William. “La voluntat de creure”. Quaderns de Filosofia, vol. III, n. 2 (2016), pp. 151–172. [Introductory study published in Oya, Alberto. “Introducció. El debat entre W. K. Clifford i William James”. Quaderns (...)
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  22. Ockham's Scientia Argument for Mental Language.Eric W. Hagedorn - 2015 - Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy 3:145-168.
    William Ockham held that, in addition to written and spoken language, there exists a mental language, a structured representational system common to all thinking beings. Here I present and evaluate an argument found in several places across Ockham's corpus, wherein he argues that positing a mental language is necessary for the nominalist to meet certain ontological constraints imposed by Aristotle’s account of scientific demonstration.
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  23. Review of The Science of the Soul. The Commentary Tradition on Aristotle’s De Anima, C. 1260–C. 1360 by Sander W. De Boer. [REVIEW]Eric W. Hagedorn - 2014 - Journal of the History of Philosophy 52 (1):168-169.
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  24.  78
    W, W, W, We Are Theocracy: Legal Stammer.Pouya Lotfi Yazdi - manuscript
    In this essay, I (Hereafter: the writer) will attempt to indicate the necessity of a minimalist position on the legal language. Moreover, the writer will transfer this conservative position to legal language in a theocracy and argue that religious legal language in a theocracy is involved Legal Stammer Argument.
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  25. Revising the UMLS Semantic Network.Steffen Schulze-Kremer, Barry Smith & Anand Kumar - 2004 - In MedInfo.
    The integration of standardized biomedical terminologies into a single, unified knowledge representation system has formed a key area of applied informatics research in recent years. The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is the most advanced and most prominent effort in this direction, bringing together within its Metathesaurus a large number of distinct source-terminologies. The UMLS Semantic Network, which is designed to support the integration of these source-terminologies, has proved to be a highly successful combination of formal coherence and broad scope. (...)
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  26. Nothing is True.W. Gamester - forthcoming - Journal of Philosophy.
    This paper motivates and defends alethic nihilism, the theory that nothing is true. I first argue that alethic paradoxes like the Liar and Curry motivate nihilism; I then defend the view from objections. The critical discussion has two primary outcomes. First, a proof of concept. Alethic nihilism strikes many as silly or obviously false, even incoherent. I argue that it is in fact well-motivated and internally coherent. Second, I argue that deflationists about truth ought to be nihilists. Deflationists maintain that (...)
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  27. Explanatoriness is Evidentially Irrelevant, or Inference to the Best Explanation Meets Bayesian Confirmation Theory.W. Roche & E. Sober - 2013 - Analysis 73 (4):659-668.
    In the world of philosophy of science, the dominant theory of confirmation is Bayesian. In the wider philosophical world, the idea of inference to the best explanation exerts a considerable influence. Here we place the two worlds in collision, using Bayesian confirmation theory to argue that explanatoriness is evidentially irrelevant.
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  28. Rezension: Hagen Schulze - Gibt es überhaupt eine Deutsche Geschichte? Berlin 1989.Wagner Isabelle - manuscript
    a book review for Hagen Schulze's "Gibt es überhaupt eine deutsche Geschichte?" done as a homework for university (KIT Institut für Geschichte) Modul Pol.G. I.
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  29. Rethinking Hegel's Conceptual Realism.W. Clark Wolf - 2018 - Review of Metaphysics 72 (2):331-70.
    In this paper, I contest increasingly common "realist" interpretations of Hegel's theory of "the concept" (der Begriff), offering instead a "isomorphic" conception of the relation of concepts and the world. The isomorphism recommended, however, is metaphysically deflationary, for I show how Hegel's conception of conceptual form creates a conceptually internal standard for the adequacy of concepts. No "sideways-on" theory of the concept-world relationship is envisioned. This standard of conceptual adequacy is also "graduated" in that it allows for a lack of (...)
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  30. The Myth of the Taken: Why Hegel Is Not a Conceptualist.W. Clark Wolf - 2019 - International Journal of Philosophical Studies 27 (3):399-421.
    ABSTRACTThe close connection often cited between Hegel and Wilfrid Sellars is not only said to lie in their common negative challenges to the ‘framework of givenness,’ but also in the positive less...
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  31. Indivisible Parts and Extended Objects: Some Philosophical Episodes From Topology’s Prehistory.Dean W. Zimmerman - 1996 - The Monist 79 (1):148--80.
    Physical boundaries and the earliest topologists. Topology has a relatively short history; but its 19th century roots are embedded in philosophical problems about the nature of extended substances and their boundaries which go back to Zeno and Aristotle. Although it seems that there have always been philosophers interested in these matters, questions about the boundaries of three-dimensional objects were closest to center stage during the later medieval and modern periods. Are the boundaries of an object actually existing, less-than-three-dimensional parts of (...)
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  32. Making the Most of Clade Selection.W. Ford Doolittle - 2017 - Philosophy of Science 84 (2):275-295.
    Clade selection is unpopular with philosophers who otherwise accept multilevel selection theory. Clades cannot reproduce, and reproduction is widely thought necessary for evolution by natural selection, especially of complex adaptations. Using microbial evolutionary processes as heuristics, I argue contrariwise, that (1) clade growth (proliferation of contained species) substitutes for clade reproduction in the evolution of complex adaptation, (2) clade-level properties favoring persistence – species richness, dispersal, divergence, and possibly intraclade cooperation – are not collapsible into species-level traits, (3) such properties (...)
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  33. How to Distinguish Parthood From Location in Bioontologies.Stefan Schulz, Philipp Daumke, Barry Smith & Udo Hahn - 2005 - In Proceedings of the AMIA Symposium. American Medical Informatics Association. pp. 669-673.
    The pivotal role of the relation part-of in the description of living organisms is widely acknowledged. Organisms are open systems, which means that in contradistinction to mechanical artifacts they are characterized by a continuous flow and exchange of matter. A closer analysis of the spatial relations in biological organisms reveals that the decision as to whether a given particular is part-of a second particular or whether it is only contained-in the second particular is often controversial. We here propose a rule-based (...)
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  34.  84
    From Sensor Variables to Phenomenal Facts.W. Schwarz - 2019 - Journal of Consciousness Studies 26 (9-10):217-227.
    Some cognitive processes appear to have “phenomenal” properties that are directly revealed to the subject and not determined by physical properties. I suggest that the source of this appearance is the method by which our brain processes sensory information. The appearance is an illusion. Nonetheless, we are not mistaken when we judge that people sometimes fee lpain.
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  35. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of Classroom-Based Mindfulness Meditation Compared to an Active Control Condition in Sixth-Grade Children.W. Britton, N. Lepp, H. F. Niles, Tomas Rocha, N. Fisher & J. Gold - 2014 - Journal of School Psychology 52 (3):263-278.
    The current study is a pilot trial to examine the effects of a nonelective, classroom-based, teacher-implemented, mindfulness meditation intervention on standard clinical measures of mental health and affect in middle school children. A total of 101 healthy sixth-grade students (55 boys, 46 girls) were randomized to either an Asian history course with daily mindfulness meditation practice (intervention group) or an African history course with a matched experiential activity (active control group). Self-reported measures included the Youth Self Report (YSR), a modified (...)
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  36. On the Morality of Artificial Agents.Luciano Floridi & J. W. Sanders - 2004 - Minds and Machines 14 (3):349-379.
    Artificial agents (AAs), particularly but not only those in Cyberspace, extend the class of entities that can be involved in moral situations. For they can be conceived of as moral patients (as entities that can be acted upon for good or evil) and also as moral agents (as entities that can perform actions, again for good or evil). In this paper, we clarify the concept of agent and go on to separate the concerns of morality and responsibility of agents (most (...)
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  37.  26
    What Topic Continuity Problem?Alexander W. Kocurek - forthcoming - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy.
    A common objection to the very idea of conceptual engineering is the topic continuity problem: whenever one tries to “reengineer” a concept, one only shifts attention away from one concept to another. Put differently, there is no such thing as conceptual revision: there’s only conceptual replacement. Here, I show that topic continuity is compatible with conceptual replacement. Whether the topic is preserved in an act of conceptual replacement simply depends on what is being replaced (a conceptual tool or a conceptual (...)
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  38.  61
    The Prisoner's Dilemma Paradox: Rationality, Morality, and Reciprocity.Rory W. Collins - 2022 - Think 21 (61):45-55.
    This article examines the prisoner's dilemma paradox and argues that confessing is the rational choice, despite this probably entailing a less-than-ideal outcome.
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  39. Vantagens e limitações das ontologias formais na área biomédica.Stefan Schulz, Holger Stenzhorn, Martin Boeker & Barry Smith - 2009 - RECIIS: Revista Electronica de Comunicacao Informacao, Inovacao Em Saude 3 (1).
    Propomos uma tipologia dos artefatos de representação para as áreas de saúde e ciências biológicas, e a associação dessa tipologia com diferentes tipos de ontologia formal e lógica, chegando a conclusões quanto aos pontos fortes e limitações da ontologia de diferentes tipos de recursos lógicos, enquanto mantemos o foco na lógica descritiva. Consideramos quatro tipos de representação de área: (i) representação léxico-semântica, (ii) representação de tipos de entidades, (iii) representação de conhecimento prévio, e (iv) representação de indivíduos. Defendemos uma clara (...)
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  40. Ontologies for the Life Sciences.Steffen Schulze-Kremer & Barry Smith - 2005 - In Encyclopedia of Genetics, Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics, vol. 4. Wiley.
    Where humans can manipulate and integrate the information they receive in subtle and ever-changing ways from context to context, computers need structured and context-free background information of a sort which ontologies can help to provide. A domain ontology captures the stable, highly general and commonly accepted core knowledge for an application domain. The domain at issue here is that of the life sciences, in particular molecular biology and bioinformatics. Contemporary life science research includes components drawn from physics, chemistry, mathematics, medicine (...)
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  41. The Principle of Totality and the Limits of Enhancement.Joshua Schulz - 2015 - Ethics and Medicine 31 (3):143-57.
    According to the Thomistic tradition, the Principle of Totality (TPoT) articulates a secondary principle of natural law which guides the exercise of human ownership or dominium over creation. In its general signification, TPoT is a principle of distributive justice determining the right ordering of wholes to their parts. In the medical field it is traditionally understood as entailing an absolute prohibition of bodily mutilation as irrational and immoral, and an imperfect obligation to use the parts of one’s body for the (...)
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  42.  53
    Husserl on the Overlap of Pure and Empirical Concepts.W. Clark Wolf - 2021 - European Journal of Philosophy 29 (4):1026-1038.
    This essay clarifies Edmund Husserl's view of “pure” concepts, with a view to its contemporary metaphilosophical significance. It is argued that Husserl's conception of pure concepts is unique in that he allows overlap between pure and empirical concepts. This overlap leads to a potential for confusion between pure and empirical concepts which I label “amphiboly,” following Kant's use of the term. The essay begins by clarifying Husserl's view of the divergence in concept formation between empirical and pure concepts, and then (...)
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  43. Clinical Ontologies Interfacing the Real World.Stefan Schulz, Holger Stenzhorn, Martin Boeker, Rüdiger Klar & Barry Smith - 2007 - In Third International Conference on Semantic Technologies (i-semantics 2007), Graz, Austria. Graz: pp. 356-363..
    The desideratum of semantic interoperability has been intensively discussed in medical informatics circles in recent years. Originally, experts assumed that this issue could be sufficiently addressed by insisting simply on the application of shared clinical terminologies or clinical information models. However, the use of the term ‘ontology’ has been steadily increasing more recently. We discuss criteria for distinguishing clinical ontologies from clinical terminologies and information models. Then, we briefly present the role clinical ontologies play in two multicentric research projects. Finally, (...)
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  44. Scale, Anonymity, and Political Akrasia in Aristotle’s Politics 7.4.Joshua Schulz - 2016 - In Travis Dumsday (ed.), The Wisdom of Youth: Essays Inspired by the Early Work of Jacques and Raïssa Maritain. Washington, DC, USA: pp. 295-309.
    This essay articulates and defends Aristotle’s argument in Politics 7.4 that there is a rational limit to the size of the political community. Aristotle argues that size can negatively affect the ability of an organized being to attain its proper end. After examining the metaphysical grounds for this principle in both natural beings and artifacts, we defend Aristotle’s extension of the principle to the polis. He argues that the state is in the relevant sense an organism, one whose primary end (...)
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  45. Original Sin and a Broad Free Will Defense.W. Paul Franks - 2012 - Philosophia Christi 14 (2):353–371.
    I begin with a distinction between narrow and broad defenses to the logical problem of evil. The former is simply an attempt to show that God and evil are not logically incompat-ible whereas the latter attempts the same, but only by appealing to beliefs one takes to be true in the actual world. I then argue that while recent accounts of original sin may be consistent with a broad defense, they are also logically incoherent. After considering potential replies, I conclude (...)
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  46.  71
    Machine Grading and Moral Learning.Joshua Schulz - 2014 - New Atlantis: A Journal of Technology and Society 41 (Winter):2014.
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  47. Concept Mapping, Mind Mapping Argument Mapping: What Are the Differences and Do They Matter?W. Martin Davies - 2011 - Higher Education 62 (3):279–301.
    In recent years, academics and educators have begun to use software mapping tools for a number of education-related purposes. Typically, the tools are used to help impart critical and analytical skills to students, to enable students to see relationships between concepts, and also as a method of assessment. The common feature of all these tools is the use of diagrammatic relationships of various kinds in preference to written or verbal descriptions. Pictures and structured diagrams are thought to be more comprehensible (...)
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  48. W. E. B. Du Bois’s “Conservation of Races”: A Metaphilosophical Text.Kimberly Ann Harris - 2019 - Metaphilosophy 50 (5):670-687.
    Nothing was more important for W. E. B. Du Bois than to promote the upward mobility of African Americans. This essay revisits his “The Conversation of Races” to demonstrate its general philosophical importance. Ultimately, Du Bois’s three motivations for giving the address reveal his view of the nature of philosophical inquiry: to critique earlier phenotypic conceptions of race, to show the essentiality of history, and to promote a reflexive practice. Commentators have been unduly invested in the hermeneutic readings and as (...)
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  49. W.E.B. Du Bois’s Constructivist Theory of Justice.Elvira Basevich - 2021 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 19 (2):170-195.
    This essay presents the normative foundation of W.E.B. Du Bois’s constructivist theory of justice in three steps. First, I show that for Du Bois the public sphere in Anglo-European modern states consists of a dialectical interplay between reasonable persons and illiberal rogues. Second, under these nonideal circumstances, the ideal of autonomy grounds reasonable persons’ deliberative openness, an attitude of public moral regard for others which is necessary for constructing the terms of political rule. Though deliberative openness is the essential vehicle (...)
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  50. W. K. Clifford and William James on Doxastic Norms.Alberto Oya - 2018 - Comprendre 20 (2):61-77.
    The main aim of this paper is to explain and analyze the debate between W. K. Clifford ("The Ethics of Belief", 1877) and William James ("The Will to Believe", 1896). Given that the main assumption shared by Clifford and James in this debate is doxastic voluntarism –i.e., the claim that we can, at least in some occasions, willingly decide what to believe–, I will explain the arguments offered by Bernard Williams in his “Deciding to Believe” (1973) against doxastic voluntarism. Finally, (...)
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