Results for 'Weiyu Zhang'

77 found
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  1. Online Deliberation and #CivicTech: A Symposium.Weiyu Zhang, Todd Davies & Anna Przybylska - 2021 - Journal of Deliberative Democracy 17 (1):76-77.
    Online deliberation is one important instance of civic tech that is both for and by the citizens, through engaging citizens in Internet-supported deliberative discussions on public issues. This article explains the origins of a set of symposium articles in this journal issue based on the 2017 'International Conference on Deliberation and Decision Making: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Civic Tech' held in Singapore. Symposium articles are presented in a sequence that flows from designing decision making systems to platforms to specific technological nudges.
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  2. Zhang Junmai’s Early Political Philosophy and the Paradoxes of Chinese Modernity.Eric S. Nelson - 2020 - Asian Studies 8 (1):183-208.
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  3. Zhang Yibing, Back to Marx: Changes of Philosophical Discourse in the Context of Economics. [REVIEW]Kaan Kangal - 2017 - Science and Society 81:305-309.
    This massive book packs an astounding amount of analysis of Marx into its pages. Three contributions are here noteworthy: 1) Zhang presents one of the most extensive overviews on Marx’s entire work; 2) he provides good reasons to think that some of the standard readings are uncharitable, if not entirely inconsistent; 3) he holds that the late Marx’s world outlook is to be considered as a historical phenomenology.
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  4. Formal A Priori, or Material A Priori: On Scheler's Critique of Kant's Concept of the A Priori.Zhang Renzhi - 2008 - Modern Philosophy 1:016.
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  5.  4
    The Self-Programming Mind.Fangfang Li & Xiaojie Zhang - manuscript
    How the mind works is the ultimate mystery for human beings. To answer this question, one of the most significant insights is Kant’s argument that we can only perceive the phenomenon but the essence of the external world. Following this idea, phenomenologists and enactivists believe that there is no ground for symbolic intermediate-level representation in the mind since symbols cannot really represent objects in the external world. In this paper, we present another intuition to understand symbols, that is, symbols represent (...)
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  6.  5
    Attitudes Toward Entrepreneurship Education, Post-Pandemic Entrepreneurial Environment, and Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy Among University Students.Jiping Zhang, Jianhao Huang & Yao Hong - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13:758511.
    Currently, little is known about the mechanism of how university students’ attitudes toward entrepreneurship education (ATEE) affect entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) in the post-pandemic entrepreneurial environment. Based on the existing research, this study explores the relationship between ATEE, the post-pandemic entrepreneurship environment, and ESE through a questionnaire survey. A total of 910 university students from three universities in Zhejiang Province, China participated, with an effective rate of 92.9%. The data collection focused on the period from August to December 2020. In this (...)
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  7. Antecedents of Attitude and Their Impact on Behavioral Intention in the Staycation Context.Yating Zhang, Huawen Shen, Jiajia Xu & Stella Fang Qian - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13:996788.
    The year 2020 and 2021 have been decimated by the pandemic, leading to outbound vacations largely scrapped. Staycation, a typical domestic journal, has then been adopted by those who are tired of self-isolation for so long. This study aims to explore and assess the drivers exerting impact on attitude of tourists toward staycation and the interrelationship among the research constructs is also examined. A quantitative analysis is employed for evaluating the roles of reduced risk perception, benign envy, and perceived benefits (...)
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  8. Four Facets of Privacy and Intellectual Freedom in Licensing Contracts for Electronic Journals.Alan Rubel & Mei Zhang - 2015 - College and Research Libraries 4 (76):427-449.
    This is a study of the treatment of library patron privacy in licenses for electronic journals in academic libraries. We begin by distinguishing four facets of privacy and intellectual freedom based on the LIS and philosophical literature. Next, we perform a content analysis of 42 license agreements for electronic journals, focusing on terms for enforcing authorized use and collection and sharing of user data. We compare our findings to model licenses, to recommendations proposed in a recent treatise on licenses, and (...)
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  9.  13
    Book review: Zhang Hwe-Ik’s Lectures on Natural Philosophy. [REVIEW]Daihyun Chung - unknown
    Now it’s the time to hear lots of talks about crisis of philosophy and disappearance of humanities. One can assume that the trend of such dialogues is related to a culture that conviction on the modernistic absolute truth is waning and belief’s on postmodernistic pluralism gets strong. How could postmodoernism gain such a strong momentum? I could offer a hypothesis for the question, that is, that philosophy of quantum mechanics played an important role. In my mind, Zhang Hwe-Ik’s book (...)
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  10. Breaking de Morgan's Law in Counterfactual Antecedents.Lucas Champollion, Ivano Ciardelli & Linmin Zhang - manuscript
    The main goal of this paper is to investigate the relation between the meaning of a sentence and its truth conditions. We report on a comprehension experiment on counterfactual conditionals, based on a context in which a light is controlled by two switches. Our main finding is that the truth-conditionally equivalent clauses (i) "switch A or switch B is down" and (ii) "switch A and switch B are not both up" make different semantic contributions when embedded in a conditional antecedent. (...)
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  11.  7
    Effects of Psychological Benefits of Greenness on Airlines’ Customer Experiential Satisfaction, Service Fairness, Alternative Attractiveness, and Switching Intention.Suk Ha Grace Chan, Xiaocheng Vicky Zhang, Yifan Betty Wang & Zhaofeng Mason Li - 2022 - Frontiers in Psychology 13:834351.
    In the context of climate change, this study uncovers the role of green airlines’ social responsibility in conjunction with the consumers’ switching behavior while considering the effects of latent variables, including green psychology, airline corporate image, green experimental behavior, green service fairness, green alternative attractiveness and switching intention, were examined in the study.
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  12.  26
    A Runtime Framework of the Mind.Fangfang Li & Xiaojie Zhang - manuscript
    How the mind works is the ultimate mystery for human beings. This paper proposed a framework to solve it. We call it the self-programming system. The self-programming system can learn, store and apply the functions of bodies, external tools, and even the mind itself uniformly. However, due to the generality of the mind, traditional scientific methods are not suitable for validating a theory of mind. Therefore, we appeal to show the explanatory power of the self-programming system. Due to this reason, (...)
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  13. Enriching the Functionally Graded Materials (FGM) Ontology for Digital Manufacturing.Munira Mohd Ali, Ruoyu Yang, Binbin Zhang, Francesco Furini, Rahul Rai, J. Neil Otte & Barry Smith - 2021 - International Journal of Production Research 59 (18):5540-5557.
    Functionally graded materials (FGMs) have been used in many different kinds of applications in recent years and have attracted significant research attention. However, we do not yet have a commonly accepted way of representing the various aspects of FGMs. Lack of standardised vocabulary creates obstacles to the extraction of useful information relating to pertinent aspects of different applications. A standard resource is needed for describing various elements of FGMs, including existing applications, manufacturing techniques, and material characteristics. This motivated the creation (...)
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  14.  71
    Should Pediatric Patients Be Prioritized When Rationing Life-Saving Treatments During the COVID-19 Pandemic.Ryan M. Antiel, Farr A. Curlin, Govind Persad, Douglas B. White, Cathy Zhang, Aaron Glickman, Ezekiel J. Emanuel & John Lantos - 2020 - Pediatrics 146 (3):e2020012542.
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  15. OAE: The Ontology of Adverse Events.Yongqun He, Sirarat Sarntivijai, Yu Lin, Zuoshuang Xiang, Abra Guo, Shelley Zhang, Desikan Jagannathan, Luca Toldo, Cui Tao & Barry Smith - 2014 - Journal of Biomedical Semantics 5 (29):1-13.
    A medical intervention is a medical procedure or application intended to relieve or prevent illness or injury. Examples of medical interventions include vaccination and drug administration. After a medical intervention, adverse events (AEs) may occur which lie outside the intended consequences of the intervention. The representation and analysis of AEs are critical to the improvement of public health. Description: The Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE), previously named Adverse Event Ontology (AEO), is a community-driven ontology developed to standardize and integrate data (...)
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  16. Two Switches in the Theory of Counterfactuals: A Study of Truth Conditionality and Minimal Change.Ivano Ciardelli, Linmin Zhang & Lucas Champollion - 2018 - Linguistics and Philosophy (6).
    Based on a crowdsourced truth value judgment experiment, we provide empirical evidence challenging two classical views in semantics, and we develop a novel account of counterfactuals that combines ideas from inquisitive semantics and causal reasoning. First, we show that two truth-conditionally equivalent clauses can make different semantic contributions when embedded in a counterfactual antecedent. Assuming compositionality, this means that the meaning of these clauses is not fully determined by their truth conditions. This finding has a clear explanation in inquisitive semantics: (...)
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  17. The Protein Ontology: A Structured Representation of Protein Forms and Complexes.Darren Natale, Cecilia N. Arighi, Winona C. Barker, Judith A. Blake, Carol J. Bult, Michael Caudy, Harold J. Drabkin, Peter D’Eustachio, Alexei V. Evsikov, Hongzhan Huang, Jules Nchoutmboube, Natalia V. Roberts, Barry Smith, Jian Zhang & Cathy H. Wu - 2011 - Nucleic Acids Research 39 (1):D539-D545.
    The Protein Ontology (PRO) provides a formal, logically-based classification of specific protein classes including structured representations of protein isoforms, variants and modified forms. Initially focused on proteins found in human, mouse and Escherichia coli, PRO now includes representations of protein complexes. The PRO Consortium works in concert with the developers of other biomedical ontologies and protein knowledge bases to provide the ability to formally organize and integrate representations of precise protein forms so as to enhance accessibility to results of protein (...)
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  18. The Ship of Theseus Puzzle.David Rose, Edouard Machery, Stephen Stich, Mario Alai, Adriano Angelucci, Renatas Berniūnas, Emma E. Buchtel, Amita Chatterjee, Hyundeuk Cheon, In-Rae Cho, Daniel Cohnitz, Florian Cova, Vilius Dranseika, Angeles Eraña Lagos, Laleh Ghadakpour, Maurice Grinberg, Ivar Hannikainen, Takaaki Hashimoto, Amir Horowitz, Evgeniya Hristova, Yasmina Jraissati, Veselina Kadreva, Kaori Karasawa, Hackjin Kim, Yeonjeong Kim, Min-Woo Lee, Carlos Mauro, Masaharu Mizumoto, Sebastiano Moruzzi, Christopher Y. Olivola, Jorge Ornelas, Barbara Osimani, Alejandro Rosas, Carlos Romero, Massimo Sangoi, Andrea Sereni, Sarah Songhorian, Paulo Sousa, Noel Struchiner, Vera Tripodi, Naoki Usui, Alejandro Vázquez Del Vázquez Del Mercado, Giorgio Volpe, Hrag A. Vosgerichian, Xueyi Zhang & Jing Zhu - 2020 - In Tania Lombrozo, Joshua Knobe & Shaun Nichols (eds.), Oxford Studies in Experimental Philosophy Volume 3. Oxford University Press. pp. 158-174.
    Does the Ship of Theseus present a genuine puzzle about persistence due to conflicting intuitions based on “continuity of form” and “continuity of matter” pulling in opposite directions? Philosophers are divided. Some claim that it presents a genuine puzzle but disagree over whether there is a solution. Others claim that there is no puzzle at all since the case has an obvious solution. To assess these proposals, we conducted a cross-cultural study involving nearly 3,000 people across twenty-two countries, speaking eighteen (...)
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  19. Entropy : A Concept That is Not a Physical Quantity.Shufeng Zhang - 2012 - Physics Essays 25 (2):172-176.
    This study has demonstrated that entropy is not a physical quantity, that is, the physical quantity called entropy does not exist. If the efficiency of heat engine is defined as η = W/W1, and the reversible cycle is considered to be the Stirling cycle, then, given ∮dQ/T = 0, we can prove ∮dW/T = 0 and ∮d/T = 0. If ∮dQ/T = 0, ∮dW/T = 0 and ∮dE/T = 0 are thought to define new system state variables, such definitions would (...)
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  20. Die Intentionalität des Fühlens und die Schichtung der emotionalen Sphäre: Die fundamentalen Fragen in Max Schelers Phänomenologie des Fühlens.Wei Zhang - 2010 - Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique 6:1-20.
    Les questions les plus fondamentales de la phénoménologie du sentir de Max Scheler concernent la place de l’intentionnalité dans la phénoménologie du sentir et la structuration de la sphère émotionnelle. Dans la première section, nous nous focaliserons avant tout sur la différence entre les sentiments non intentionnels et le sentir intentionnel, en comparant sur ce point les positions de Scheler et de Husserl. En effet, Scheler critique ces deux thèses fondamentales de Husserl: 1) les actes affectifs et leurs corrélats (« (...)
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  21. Descartes' Doctrine of Clear and Distinct Perception: A Systematic Clarification.Weite Zhang - 2016 - Dissertation, Heidelberg University
    This book attempts to contribute a historical and interpretive study of Descartes' epistemology. It provides a systematic and exhaustive clarification of the mysterious and puzzling doctrine of "clear and distinct perception" and illuminates the relationships between this doctrine and four other central notions: "truth," "metaphysical doubt," "(metaphysical) certainty," and "knowledge." -/- Roughly speaking, a clear and distinct perception is a pure understanding, an intellectual perception, or a mental intuition in which a purified and attending mind has a simple mental intuition (...)
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  22.  31
    Beyond "Nature" and "God".Xinyan Zhang - manuscript
    With this article, the author argues that in reality nothing is or isn’t itself, that everything is both a relative proof and an absolute proof of God’s existence, and that our language, such as “nature” or “god”, is the only obstacle between Nature and God.
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  23.  59
    Beyond "Nature" and "God".Xinyan Zhang - manuscript
    With this article, the author argues that in reality nothing is or isn’t itself, that everything is both a relative proof and an absolute proof of God’s existence, and that our language, such as “nature” or “god”, is the only obstacle between Nature and God.
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  24.  82
    Being and Human Being.Xinyan Zhang - manuscript
    We may never understand what the phrase “human being” means if we do not try to understand ontological meaning of the concept “Being” or “being” or “beings”. With two essays presented together, the author tries to explain not only this concept but also its ontological consequence to other concepts such as “universe”, “life”, “organism”, “human” and “human mind”.
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  25.  46
    A Critical Interpretation of Leo Strauss’ Thoughts on Machiavelli.Guodong Zhang - manuscript
    Strauss’s analysis of Machiavelli is both about his argument and action. He looks Machiavelli’s argument through the lens of classicalpolitical philosophy especially Plato’s political philosophy. He believed Machiavelli had not achieved important theoretical innovation. He looks Machiavelli’s action through the lens of modernity. He believed Machiavelli’s political thought did not perform a good function as it did in the last several centuries any more. Moreover, Strauss supplement Machiavelli’s political thought with a discussion of the problem of technique. Strauss’s caution of (...)
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  26. 上下文感知的移动社交网络推荐算法研究.Zhijun Zhang & Hong Liu - 2015 - 模式识别与人工智能 28 (5):404-410.
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  27. Schelerova Kritika Husserlova Fenomenološkog Shvaćanja "Objektivnog a Priori".Wei Zhang - 2011 - Prolegomena 10 (2):265-280.
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  28. Schelers Kritik an der phänomenologischen Auffassung des gegenständlichen Apriori bei Husserl.Wei Zhang - 2011 - Prolegomena 10 (2):265-280.
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  29. Scheler's Critique of Husserl's Phenomenological Understanding of "Objective a Priori".Wei Zhang - 2011 - Prolegomena 10 (2):265-280.
    On the one hand, Scheler's critique of Kant's concept of a priori benefits from Husserl to a large extent, and it complements and deepens Husserl's. On the other hand, Scheler also critiques Husserl's definition of a priori. Husserl's material a priori as ideal object primarily thanks to his so-called "Bolzano- turn". In this connection, Scheler grabs hold of the relation of Husserl to Bolzano from the very beginning. For Scheler, Husserl thinks in a "platonic" way, and still falls in a (...)
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  30. Research on Context-Awareness Mobile SNS Recommendation Algorithm.Zhijun Zhang & Hong Liu - 2015 - Pattern Recognition and Artificial Intelligence 28.
    Although patterns of human activity show a large degree of freedom, they exhibit structural patterns subjected by geographic and social constraints. Aiming at various problems of personalized recommendation in mobile networks, a social network recommendation algorithm is proposed with a variety of context-aware information and combined with a series of social network analysis methods.Based on geographical location and temporal information, potential social relations among users are mined deeply to find the most similar set of users for the target user, then (...)
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  31. Pedestrian Detection Based on Hierarchical Co-Occurrence Model for Occlusion Handling.Xiaowei Zhang, HaiMiao Hu, Fan Jiang & Bo Li - 2015 - Neurocomputing 10.
    In pedestrian detection, occlusions are typically treated as an unstructured source of noise and explicit models have lagged behind those for object appearance, which will result in degradation of detection performance. In this paper, a hierarchical co-occurrence model is proposed to enhance the semantic representation of a pedestrian. In our proposed hierarchical model, a latent SVM structure is employed to model the spatial co-occurrence relations among the parent–child pairs of nodes as hidden variables for handling the partial occlusions. Moreover, the (...)
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  32.  87
    On the Paradox of Wuwei - A Refutation and Defense of Daoist "Right Action".Dawei Zhang - 2021 - Philosophical Trends 202107 (7):115-125.
    Wuwei (nonaction) is one of the core concepts of Daoist ethics. Edward Slingerland pointed out that wuwei involves a paradox, and Arthur C. Danto questioned whether wuwei could support a genuine moral theory and the idea of right action. To defend Daoist ethics and its concept of right action, it is necessary to envisage Danto’s criticism and the problems raised by Slingerland. According to Ivanhoe, Wuwei is not a paradox, but a riddle or mystery about self-cultivation. He thinks that if (...)
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  33.  28
    On Montesquieu’s Intention and His Theory of Government.Guodong Zhang - manuscript
    Montesquieu believes that human beings have three kinds of natures: self-preserving, imperfect knowledge and passions. The first and the third nature tend to conflict with each other, and the result is the state of war, in which human natures could not be satisfied. Montesquieu uses this theory of human nature to judge all the kinds of governments, and finds that the virtuous republic, despotism and monarchy all have important defects. Especially, the monarchy by nature tends to degenerate into despotism, which (...)
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  34. On Being.Xinyan Zhang - manuscript
    “Being” or “being and beings” might be the meta-notion when philosophy and science were still sharing the same mind or minds in ancient Greek and Europe. To find its meaning and to become a part of the meaning are however more and more vital nowadays, not for philosophy but for science, especially for physics and biology. The author proposes in this essay that this concept may mean to us nothing more or less than the unity or unification of Parmenides’ idea (...)
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  35.  35
    One and the Only Ontology.Xinyan Zhang - manuscript
    Against the divide between continental and analytic philosophies, this article means to say: 1. All understanding = ontology + language, 2. Ontology = O + C (such as the unity of Parmenides’ one and Heraclitus’ change), and 3. OC = Nature or God. In other words, OC is the only meaning of all and every language.
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  36. One and the Only Ontology.Xinyan Zhang - manuscript
    Scientism denies change and creation in science, and humanism denies change and creation in humanity. They leave no room for freedom, equality and fraternity. The paper is written as the deconstruction of both scientism and humanism.
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  37.  66
    Methods of Doing Daoist Ethics: Analysis, Interpretation and Comparison.Dawei Zhang & Weijia Zeng - 2021 - Social Sciences in Yunnan 240 (2):69-76.
    In order to have an effective and reliable understanding of the basic moral concepts, moral propositions and moral reasoning in Daoist ethical thoughts, it is necessary to use the methods of doing philosophy and doing ethics to engage in research work, and thus draw an intellectual conclusion about Daoist ethics. The methods of Daoist ethics mainly include analysis, explanation and comparison. The method of analysis focuses on logical analysis and language analysis of moral language in the classic texts of Daoist (...)
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  38.  89
    How to Create a Life or Mind as the Explanation of Our Consciousness, Intelligence and Language.Xinyan Zhang - 2022 - Journal of Neurophilosophy (No. 2 (2022)).
    Against ideas of dualism, logocentrism, anthropocentrism, animism, panpsychism, biocentrism, neurocentrism, foundationalism, computationalism, especially substantialism, reductionism and even physicalism, the author argues that life may be the only non-reductive concept, even the only ontological concept, with which we may explain our consciousness, intelligence and language. Life, as defined in this article, explains but not only human brains, and even not only biological organisms. Still, the mind, also as defined in this article, is the only one it explains. No mind may exist (...)
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  39. Moral Judgment and Motivation.Xiao Zhang - 2020 - Dissertation, University of Birmingham
    In this thesis, I explore motivational internalism and externalism, which concern the relationship between moral judgments and motivation. I first introduce the basic terms and different forms of internalism and externalism, including the externalist objections to internalism based on the famous counterexamples. I then argue against externalism by defending and developing Michael Smith’s fetishism argument. I not only respond to the externalist objections to the fetishism argument but also further argue against different externalist explanations of moral motivation that intend to (...)
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  40. Kants Architektonik der Reinen Vernunft -- Eine Aufklärung Über Eine Weltbürgerliche Weisheit.Guang Zhang - 2017 - Dissertation, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen
    Sie ist eine systematische und dialektische Auseinandesetzung mit Kants Architektonik der reinen Vernunft in der Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Damit zeigt Sie uns an, dass die Kritik der reinen Vernunft sich mit der Unterscheidung von Anschauung und Begriffen als eine Aufklärung einer praktischen Zweckmäßigkeit unserer Vernunft vorstellt.
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  41.  87
    Intertextuality and the Dao that Unifies Being and Nothing - Intertextual Rhetoric in Laozi’s Dao De Jing.Dawei Zhang - 2021 - Journal of Zhoukou Normal University 38 (6):60-66.
    Intertextuality (mutual illustration) is a common rhetorical device in ancient Chinese and has been used many times in Laozi (Dao Dejing). Intertextuality (mutual illustration) is of unique significance for understanding the linguistic structure and philosophical thoughts of Lao-zi. According to the current research on mutual illustration rhetoric on ancient Chinese, the forms of this rhetoric in Laozi can be divided into mutual illustration of single sentence, of multiple sentences and of ellipsis and antisense. There are only two references to mutual (...)
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  42. How to Create a Mind.Xinyan Zhang - manuscript
    Based on the ontological proposition, “life is the only attribute of mind, and mind also the only attribute of life”, a model of the human mind is hypothesized in this article. It may be deduced from the proposition and the model: 1. All the structures of a brain are the potentials of its intelligence. 2. Consciousness is only the language used in the communication of an awakened brain. 3. Qualia are the same mental language manipulated by different memories. 4. Life (...)
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  43. God's Hate.Xinyan Zhang - manuscript
    God is free. If free, God certainly hates being omniscient, omnipotent, eternal and perfection. If God hates so, ....
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  44.  87
    The Source and the Nature of Life and Consciousness.Xinyan Zhang - manuscript
    It seems to the author that, though it is possible to reach an explanation of consciousness, there is no direct way for us to go. In other words, the author believes that, only through a detour, through an understanding of everything outside mind, we may and can and will finally reach an understanding of those inside. The author tries in this article to discuss some details of such a detour, first from the understanding of Being and being, universe and life, (...)
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  45.  96
    The Politics of Truth in China: Ontological-Ethical Dimensions of Science and Science Fiction.Lennon Zhang - 2022 - Journal of Science Fiction and Philosophy 5.
    Reading science fiction in China as a science project, this paper articulates a philosophical reflection on the ontology and ethics of truth that stems from the world of China. Through the reading of various texts of and about science fiction in China, from the Republican to the contemporary period, this article analyzes the situation of science fiction in China. Since science fiction was originally conceived as a science novel—a literary form that meant to convey scientific truth in order to create (...)
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  46.  60
    The Ontology of Nature or God.Xinyan Zhang - 2020
    Scientism denies change and creation in science, and humanism denies change and creation in humanity. They leave no room for freedom, equality and fraternity. This book is written as the deconstruction of both scientism and humanism.
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  47. Trope Mental Causation: Still Not Qua Mental.Wenjun Zhang - forthcoming - Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy.
    A popular solution to the causal exclusion problem in the non-reductive physicalist camp is the trope identity solution. But this solution is haunted by the “quausation problem” which charges that the trope only confers causal powers qua physical, not qua mental. Although proponents of the trope solution have responded to the problem by denying the existence of properties of tropes, I do not find their reply satisfactory. Rather, I believe they have missed the core presupposition behind the quausation problem. I (...)
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  48. 存在或上帝.Zhang Xinyan - manuscript
    每本书都能有自己的一个名字,这实在是一件有趣且意味深长的事情。 这本书的名字,《存在或上帝 —— 对西方意识形态的建设性批判》,虽然长了点,但同样不失其有趣与意味深长。 书名中所谓的“西方意识形态”,指的是起源于西方世界,贯穿于西方历史,激发并引导了神学、哲学、数学、逻辑、艺术、科学、心理、经济、社会、环境、政治和军事等不同方面的理论和实践活动在西方的出现和发展,并造 就了西方人生活现状的那些最根本的理想或信念。 “对西方意识形态的批判”意味着,在本书作者看来,那些最根本的理想或信念并不完美,并不自洽,而且,不仅有必要也同样有可能变得更完美。 “对西方意识形态的建设性批判”则意味着,本书的重点并不是“批判”而是“建设”。这种建设性批判,主要涉及到两个极为重要的理想或信念的不自洽和不完美,其中一个是“存在”,另一个便是“上帝”。 至于书名中的“存在或上帝”,说的不仅是“存在”和“上帝” 的不自洽、不完美,说的不仅是使这两个概念更完美的必要性与可能性,说的不仅是使它们同一或统一的可能性与必要性,同时亦向读者提示了贯彻本书始终的那个基本方法或那条基本思路:在一切之间,有一切之存在。 无论是远在过去还是时至今日,对于许多西方人来说,“存在”与“上帝”这两个概念,既是一切问题之问题,又是一切答案之答案,不仅涉及到他们的过去,更涉及到了他们的未来。换句话说,“存在”与“上帝”所涉及到的 绝非仅仅只是人们所面对的那个世界,同样涉及到那个世界所面对的人本身,绝非仅仅只涉及到那个世界所承负着的“非我”,同样涉及到人们所承负着的那个“自我”,涉及到,我们每个人用“非我”为自己的“自我”所做的 每一件事情,涉及到了“自我”与“非我”的关系,特别是自由与必然之间的关系。 由此可见,这问题和答案绝非仅仅只是向西方人提出,亦绝非只应由西方人给出。对每个和所有人来说,这都同样有可能成为一个问题,我们又都以某种方式在给出一份自己的答案。甚至可以说,任何一种人生,人生中的任何一 件大事或小事,所留下的,无一不是这个问题,亦无一不是对这个问题的回答。 作为对这个问题的提出和对那个答案的探索,本书的第一章讨论了“存在”,最后一篇附录的文章讨论了“上帝”,而在它们之间的八个章节和所有附录的文章中,通过对宇宙、生命、生物、心灵、自我、人和社会的本体论理解 ,讨论的则是“自由” ,特别是“自由”与“平等”之间的相互依存,因为只有通过自由与平等的相互依存,“存在”与“上帝”方才能得以完美自洽,方才能回归于彼此。 通过这些讨论,本书顺便还介绍了两种尚且不为大多数西方人所知所行的自由,源于平等的自由和超越平等的自由。 因为存在或上帝既成就又超越了我们已有的一切知识,无论这知识是语言、哲学、逻辑、数学还是科学,所以,本书在内容和方法上同样既尊重它们又不为之所限。这种对现存全部知识既尊重又不为之所限的态度和做法,固然是 对形而上传统的继承,固然在自由主义中有其思想根源,亦可以说是本书作者对爱因斯坦所说“想象比知识更重要”那句话的理解、证明、实践和发扬光大。 既尊重又要超越一切知识,对任何人来说都不是一件容易做到的事情,但也同样不是一件不可能的事情。本书将一步一步地向读者解释并证明这一道理,证明这不仅符合存在或上帝的本性,也正是存在或上帝一直以来的所作所为 。 也许,无论是过去还是未来,无论是在西方还是在东方,只有当理解这本性和那所作所为之后,一个人才有可能最终走出自己,才有可能成就自己的真实与自由,人类才有可能最终走出柏拉图所说的那个洞穴,才有可能既生活在 存在的真实无妄之中,也生活在上帝的自由自在之中。 .
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  49. Relationship Between Extraversion and Employees’ Innovative Behavior and Moderating Effect of Organizational Innovative Climate.Yuyan Luo, Zhi Cao, Lu Yin, Huiqin Zhang & Zhong Wang - 2018 - Neuroquantology 16 (6):186-194.
    This paper aims to clarify the relationship between extraversion and employees’ innovative and disclose the moderating effect of organizational innovative climate on that relationship. To this end, 300 employees were selected from various enterprises in three Chinese cities, and subjected to a questionnaire survey based on the five factor model (FFM) and 5-point Likert scale. Through statistical regressions, the author explored the effects of extraversion and organizational innovative climate have on employees’ innovative behavior. Then, the organizational innovative climate was divided (...)
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  50.  24
    Empirical Adaptationism Revisited: Is It Testable and is It Worth Testing?Mingjun Zhang - 2022 - Biology and Philosophy 37 (6):1-23.
    Empirical adaptationism is often said to be an empirical claim about nature, which concerns the overall relative causal importance of natural selection in evolution compared with other evolutionary factors. Philosophers and biologists who have tried to clarify the meaning of empirical adaptationism usually share, explicitly or implicitly, two assumptions: (1) Empirical adaptationism is an empirical claim that is scientifically testable; (2) testing empirical adaptationism is scientifically valuable. In this article, I challenge these two assumptions and argue that both are unwarranted (...)
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