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  1. added 2020-07-05
    Euclidean Geometry is a Priori.Boris Culina - manuscript
    In the article, an argument is given that Euclidean geometry is a priori in the same way that numbers are a priori, the result of modelling, not the world, but our activities in the world.
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  2. added 2020-07-05
    Francesca Biagioli: Space, Number, and Geometry From Helmholtz to Cassirer: Springer, Dordrecht, 2016, 239 Pp, $109.99 , ISBN: 978-3-319-31777-9. [REVIEW]Lydia Patton - 2019 - Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 50 (2):311-315.
    Francesca Biagioli’s Space, Number, and Geometry from Helmholtz to Cassirer is a substantial and pathbreaking contribution to the energetic and growing field of researchers delving into the physics, physiology, psychology, and mathematics of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The book provides a bracing and painstakingly researched re-appreciation of the work of Hermann von Helmholtz and Ernst Cassirer, and of their place in the tradition, and is worth study for that alone. The contributions of the book go far beyond that, however. (...)
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  3. added 2020-07-04
    An Elementary System of Axioms for Euclidean Geometry Based on Symmetry Principles.Boris Čulina - 2018 - Axiomathes 28 (2):155-180.
    In this article I develop an elementary system of axioms for Euclidean geometry. On one hand, the system is based on the symmetry principles which express our a priori ignorant approach to space: all places are the same to us, all directions are the same to us and all units of length we use to create geometric figures are the same to us. On the other hand, through the process of algebraic simplification, this system of axioms directly provides the Weyl’s (...)
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  4. added 2020-05-21
    Are the Notions of Past, Present and Future Compatible with the General Theory of Relativity?Daniel David Sega Neuman & Daniel Galviz - manuscript
    The notions of time and causality are revisited, as well as the A- and B-theory of time, in order to determine which theory of time is most compatible with relativistic spacetimes. By considering orientable spacetimes and defining a time-orientation, we formalize the concepts of a time-series in relativistic spacetimes; A-theory and B-theory are given mathematical descriptions within the formalism of General Relativity. As a result, in time-orientable spacetimes, the notions of events being in the future and in the past, which (...)
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  5. added 2019-10-09
    Explicaciones Geométrico-Diagramáticas en Física desde una Perspectiva Inferencial.Javier Anta - 2019 - Revista Colombiana de Filosofía de la Ciencia 38 (19).
    El primer objetivo de este artículo es mostrar que explicaciones genuinamente geométricas/matemáticas e intrínsecamente diagramáticas de fenómenos físicos no solo son posibles en la práctica científica, sino que además comportan un potencial epistémico que sus contrapartes simbólico-verbales carecen. Como ejemplo representativo utilizaremos la metodología geométrica de John Wheeler (1963) para calcular cantidades físicas en una reacción nuclear. Como segundo objetivo pretendemos analizar, desde un marco inferencial, la garantía epistémica de este tipo de explicaciones en términos de dependencia sintáctica y semántica (...)
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  6. added 2019-09-04
    Fine-Structure Constant From Sommerfeld to Feynman.Michael A. Sherbon - 2019 - Journal of Advances in Physics 16 (1):335-343.
    The fine-structure constant, which determines the strength of the electromagnetic interaction, is briefly reviewed beginning with its introduction by Arnold Sommerfeld and also includes the interest of Wolfgang Pauli, Paul Dirac, Richard Feynman and others. Sommerfeld was very much a Pythagorean and sometimes compared to Johannes Kepler. The archetypal Pythagorean triangle has long been known as a hiding place for the golden ratio. More recently, the quartic polynomial has also been found as a hiding place for the golden ratio. The (...)
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  7. added 2019-06-06
    What Frege Meant When He Said: Kant is Right About Geometry.Teri Merrick - 2006 - Philosophia Mathematica 14 (1):44-75.
    This paper argues that Frege's notoriously long commitment to Kant's thesis that Euclidean geometry is synthetic _a priori_ is best explained by realizing that Frege uses ‘intuition’ in two senses. Frege sometimes adopts the usage presented in Hermann Helmholtz's sign theory of perception. However, when using ‘intuition’ to denote the source of geometric knowledge, he is appealing to Hermann Cohen's use of Kantian terminology. We will see that Cohen reinterpreted Kantian notions, stripping them of any psychological connotation. Cohen's defense of (...)
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  8. added 2019-01-28
    What Is the Validity Domain of Einstein’s Equations? Distributional Solutions Over Singularities and Topological Links in Geometrodynamics.Elias Zafiris - 2016 - 100 Years of Chronogeometrodynamics: The Status of the Einstein's Theory of Gravitation in Its Centennial Year.
    The existence of singularities alerts that one of the highest priorities of a centennial perspective on general relativity should be a careful re-thinking of the validity domain of Einstein’s field equations. We address the problem of constructing distinguishable extensions of the smooth spacetime manifold model, which can incorporate singularities, while retaining the form of the field equations. The sheaf-theoretic formulation of this problem is tantamount to extending the algebra sheaf of smooth functions to a distribution-like algebra sheaf in which the (...)
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  9. added 2018-12-29
    Is Geometry Analytic?David Mwakima - 2017 - Dianoia 1 (4):66 - 78.
    In this paper I present critical evaluations of Ayer and Putnam's views on the analyticity of geometry. By drawing on the historico-philosophical work of Michael Friedman on the relativized apriori; and Roberto Torretti on the foundations of geometry, I show how we can make sense of the assertion that pure geometry is analytic in Carnap's sense.
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  10. added 2018-06-06
    Poincaré on the Foundation of Geometry in the Understanding.Jeremy Shipley - 2017 - In Maria Zack & Dirk Schlimm (eds.), Research in History and Philosophy of Mathematics: The CSHPM 2016 Annual Meeting in Calgary, Alberta. Springer. pp. 19-37.
    This paper is about Poincaré’s view of the foundations of geometry. According to the established view, which has been inherited from the logical positivists, Poincaré, like Hilbert, held that axioms in geometry are schemata that provide implicit definitions of geometric terms, a view he expresses by stating that the axioms of geometry are “definitions in disguise.” I argue that this view does not accord well with Poincaré’s core commitment in the philosophy of geometry: the view that geometry is the study (...)
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  11. added 2018-03-30
    Fundamental Physics and the Fine-Structure Constant.Michael A. Sherbon - 2017 - International Journal of Physical Research 5 (2):46-48.
    From the exponential function of Euler’s equation to the geometry of a fundamental form, a calculation of the fine-structure constant and its relationship to the proton-electron mass ratio is given. Equations are found for the fundamental constants of the four forces of nature: electromagnetism, the weak force, the strong force and the force of gravitation. Symmetry principles are then associated with traditional physical measures.
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  12. added 2018-03-21
    A Survey of Geometric Algebra and Geometric Calculus.Alan Macdonald - 2017 - Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras 27:853-891.
    The paper is an introduction to geometric algebra and geometric calculus for those with a knowledge of undergraduate mathematics. No knowledge of physics is required. The section Further Study lists many papers available on the web.
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  13. added 2017-11-25
    Iter Italicum and Leibniz/Giordano Correspondence.Francesco Tampoia - manuscript
    Letters exchanged by scientists are a crucial source by which to trace the process that accompanies their scientific evolution. In this paper -accomplished through a historical approach- I aim to throw new light on Leibniz's continuing interest in classical geometry and to stress the significance of his correspondence with the Italian mathematician Vitale Giordano.
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  14. added 2017-10-13
    The Point or the Primary Geometric Object.ZERARI Fathi - manuscript
    The definition of a point in geometry is primordial in order to understand the different elements of this branch of mathematics ( line, surface, solids…). This paper aims at shedding fresh light on the concept to demonstrate that it is related to another one named, here, the Primary Geometric Object; both concepts concur to understand the multiplicity of geometries and to provide hints as concerns a new understanding of some concepts in physics such as time, energy, mass….
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  15. added 2016-12-08
    The Epistemology of Geometry I: The Problem of Exactness.Anne Newstead & Franklin James - 2010 - Proceedings of the Australasian Society for Cognitive Science 2009.
    We show how an epistemology informed by cognitive science promises to shed light on an ancient problem in the philosophy of mathematics: the problem of exactness. The problem of exactness arises because geometrical knowledge is thought to concern perfect geometrical forms, whereas the embodiment of such forms in the natural world may be imperfect. There thus arises an apparent mismatch between mathematical concepts and physical reality. We propose that the problem can be solved by emphasizing the ways in which the (...)
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  16. added 2016-10-29
    The Idea of a Diagram.Desmond Fearnley-Sander - 1989 - In Hassan Ait-Kaci & Maurice Nivat (eds.), Resolution of Equations in Algebraic Structures. Academic Press.
    A detailed axiomatisation of diagrams (in affine geometry) is presented, which supports typing of geometric objects, calculation of geometric quantities and automated proof of theorems.
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  17. added 2016-04-02
    Imagination in Mathematics.Andrew Arana - 2016 - In Amy Kind (ed.), Routledge Handbook on the Philosophy of Imagination. Routledge. pp. 463-477.
    This article will consider imagination in mathematics from a historical point of view, noting the key moments in its conception during the ancient, modern and contemporary eras.
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  18. added 2015-10-18
    Unified Electromagnetic Fields.John Linus O'Sullivan - forthcoming - AuthorsDen.
    Abstract: Standing half wave particles at light speed twice in expansion-contraction comprise a static universe where two transverse fields 90° out of phase are the square of distance from each other. The universe has a static concept of time since the infinite universe is a static universe without a beginning or end. The square of distance is a point of reversal in expansion-contraction between the fields as a means to conserve energy. Photons on expansion in the electric field create matter (...)
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  19. added 2015-09-21
    Origin of Matter and Time.John Linus O'Sullivan - forthcoming - AuthorsDen.
    Abstract: Standing half wave particles at light speed twice in expansion-contraction comprise a static universe where two transverse fields 90° out of phase are the square of distance from each other. The universe has a static concept of time since the infinite universe is a static universe without a beginning or end. The square of distance is a point of reversal in expansion-contraction between the fields as a means to conserve energy. Photons on expansion in the electric field create matter (...)
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  20. added 2014-03-20
    La Signification de Nicod Pour la Phénoménologie de Wittgenstein.Ludovic Soutif - 2005 - Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale 2 (2):215-243.
    Quoique l'on ne trouve qu'un nombre limité de références à Nicod dans les manuscrits de la période dite « intermédiaire » de Wittgenstein, une lecture attentive de La Géométrie dans le monde sensible s'avère pourtant décisive pour comprendre la nature du projet phénoménologique de Wittgenstein de la fin des années vingt. Nous nous proposons de montrer que la prise en compte ainsi que la reformulation du problème posé par Nicod en 1924, celui de la nature de la relation d'inclusion spatiale, (...)
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  21. added 2014-03-06
    The Impossibility of Relations Between Non-Collocated Spatial Objects and Non-Identical Topological Spaces.Jeffrey Grupp - 2005 - Axiomathes 15 (1):85-141.
    I argue that relations between non-collocated spatial entities, between non-identical topological spaces, and between non-identical basic building blocks of space, do not exist. If any spatially located entities are not at the same spatial location, or if any topological spaces or basic building blocks of space are non-identical, I will argue that there are no relations between or among them. The arguments I present are arguments that I have not seen in the literature.
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  22. added 2013-11-17
    Review of Geometric Possibility. [REVIEW]Chris Smeenk - 2013 - Philosophia Mathematica 21 (3):416-421.
    Review of Geometric Possibility (2011), by Gordon Belot. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. x + 219 pp.
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  23. added 2013-06-24
    Hermann von Helmholtz's Mechanism: The Loss of Certainty. A Study on the Transition From Classical to Modern Philosophy of Nature.Gregor Schiemann - 2009 - Springer.
    Two seemingly contradictory tendencies have accompanied the development of the natural sciences in the past 150 years. On the one hand, the natural sciences have been instrumental in effecting a thoroughgoing transformation of social structures and have made a permanent impact on the conceptual world of human beings. This historical period has, on the other hand, also brought to light the merely hypothetical validity of scientific knowledge. As late as the middle of the 19th century the truth-pathos in the natural (...)
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  24. added 2013-06-17
    Wahrheitsgewissheitsverlust. Hermann von Helmholtz' Mechanismus Im Anbruch der Moderne. Eine Studie Zum Übergang von Klassischer Zu Moderner Naturphilosophie.Gregor Schiemann - 1997 - Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
    Der Verzicht auf absolut gültige Erkenntnis, heute in den Naturwissenschaften beinahe schon selbstverständlich, ist erst jüngeren Datums. Noch im vergangenen Jahrhundert zweifelte die experimentelle Forschung kaum an der vollkommenen Begreifbarkeit der Welt. Diesen Wandel zu erkunden und aufzuzeigen ist Thema der vorliegenden Studie. Der erste Teil präsentiert verschiedene Typen neuzeitlicher und moderner Wissenschaftsauffassungen von Galilei über Newton bis hin zu Kant. Im zweiten Teil werden Entwicklung und Wandel der Wissenschafts- und Naturauffassung bei Helmholtz (1821-1895) erstmals mittels detaillierter Textanalysen einer umfassenden (...)
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  25. added 2013-06-05
    Einstein’s Physical Geometry at Play: Inertial Motion, the Boostability Assumption, the Lorentz Transformations, and the so-Called Conventionality of the One-Way Speed of Light.Mario Bacelar Valente - manuscript
    In this work, Einstein’s view of geometry as physical geometry is taken into account in the analysis of diverse issues related to the notions of inertial motion and inertial reference frame. Einstein’s physical geometry enables a non-conventional view on Euclidean geometry (as the geometry associated to inertial motion and inertial reference frames) and on the uniform time. Also, by taking into account the implications of the view of geometry as a physical geometry, it is presented a critical reassessment of the (...)
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  26. added 2013-03-28
    Cuádricas.Jonathan Taborda & Jaime Chica - manuscript
    There are two problems Analytical Geometry with facing anyone who studies this discipline: define the nature of the locus represented by the general equation 2do degree in two or three variables: That curve represents the plane? What surface is in space? These two problems are posed and solved by applying the study of matrices and spectral theory.
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  27. added 2013-03-21
    Conics and Quadric surfaces.Jonathan Taborda & Jaime Chica - manuscript
    There are two problems Analytical Geometry with facing anyone who studies this discipline: define the nature of the locus represented by the general equation 2do degree in two or three variables: That curve represents the plane? What surface is in space? These two problems are posed and solved by applying the study of matrices and spectral theory.
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  28. added 2013-03-19
    Cónicas y Superficies Cuádricas.Jonathan Taborda & Jaime Chica - manuscript
    There are two problems Analytical Geometry with facing anyone who studies this discipline: define the nature of the locus represented by the general equation 2do degree in two or three variables: That curve represents the plane? What surface is in space? These two problems are posed and solved by applying the study of matrices and spectral theory.
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  29. added 2013-02-11
    Notes on Groups and Geometry, 1978-1986.Steven H. Cullinane - 2012 - Internet Archive.
    Typewritten notes on groups and geometry.
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  30. added 2013-01-06
    The Point or the Primary Geometric Object.Fathi ZERARI - unknown
    The definition of a point in geometry is primordial in order to understand the different elements of this branch of mathematics ( line, surface, solids…). This paper aims at shedding fresh light on the concept to demonstrate that it is related to another one named, here, the Primary Geometric Object; both concepts concur to understand the multiplicity of geometries and to provide hints as concerns a new understanding of some concepts in physics such as time, energy, mass….
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  31. added 2013-01-05
    Geometry as a Universal Mental Construction.Véronique Izard, Pierre Pica, Danièle Hinchey, Stanislas Dehane & Elizabeth Spelke - 2011 - In Stanislas Dehaene & Elizabeth Brannon (eds.), Space, Time and Number in the Brain. Oxford University Press.
    Geometry, etymologically the “science of measuring the Earth”, is a mathematical formalization of space. Just as formal concepts of number may be rooted in an evolutionary ancient system for perceiving numerical quantity, the fathers of geometry may have been inspired by their perception of space. Is the spatial content of formal Euclidean geometry universally present in the way humans perceive space, or is Euclidean geometry a mental construction, specific to those who have received appropriate instruction? The spatial content of the (...)
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  32. added 2013-01-05
    Flexible Intuitions of Euclidean Geometry in an Amazonian Indigene Group.Pierre Pica, Véronique Izard, Elizabeth Spelke & Stanislas Dehaene - 2011 - Pnas 23.
    Kant argued that Euclidean geometry is synthesized on the basis of an a priori intuition of space. This proposal inspired much behavioral research probing whether spatial navigation in humans and animals conforms to the predictions of Euclidean geometry. However, Euclidean geometry also includes concepts that transcend the perceptible, such as objects that are infinitely small or infinitely large, or statements of necessity and impossibility. We tested the hypothesis that certain aspects of nonperceptible Euclidian geometry map onto intuitions of space that (...)
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  33. added 2013-01-05
    Core Knowledge of Geometry in an Amazonian Indigene Group.Stanislas Dehaene, Véronique Izard, Pierre Pica & Elizabeth Spelke - 2006 - Science 311 (5759)::381-4.
    Does geometry constitues a core set of intuitions present in all humans, regarless of their language or schooling ? We used two non verbal tests to probe the conceptual primitives of geometry in the Munduruku, an isolated Amazonian indigene group. Our results provide evidence for geometrical intuitions in the absence of schooling, experience with graphic symbols or maps, or a rich language of geometrical terms.
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  34. added 2012-10-05
    On the Relationship Between Plane and Solid Geometry.Andrew Arana & Paolo Mancosu - 2012 - Review of Symbolic Logic 5 (2):294-353.
    Traditional geometry concerns itself with planimetric and stereometric considerations, which are at the root of the division between plane and solid geometry. To raise the issue of the relation between these two areas brings with it a host of different problems that pertain to mathematical practice, epistemology, semantics, ontology, methodology, and logic. In addition, issues of psychology and pedagogy are also important here. To our knowledge there is no single contribution that studies in detail even one of the aforementioned areas.
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  35. added 2010-09-16
    The Aristotelian Explanation of the Halo.Monte Ransome Johnson - 2009 - Apeiron 42 (4):325-357.
    For an Aristotelian observer, the halo is a puzzling phenomenon since it is apparently sublunary, and yet perfectly circular. This paper studies Aristotle's explanation of the halo in Meteorology III 2-3 as an optical illusion, as opposed to a substantial thing (like a cloud), as was thought by his predecessors and even many successors. Aristotle's explanation follows the method of explanation of the Posterior Analytics for "subordinate" or "mixed" mathematical-physical sciences. The accompanying diagram described by Aristotle is one of the (...)
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  36. added 2009-04-07
    Review of M. Giaquinto's Visual Thinking in Mathematics. [REVIEW]Andrew Arana - 2009 - Analysis 69 (2):401-403.
    Our visual experience seems to suggest that no continuous curve can cover every point of the unit square, yet in the late nineteenth century Giuseppe Peano proved that such a curve exists. Examples like this, particularly in analysis (in the sense of the infinitesimal calculus) received much attention in the nineteenth century. They helped instigate what Hans Hahn called a “crisis of intuition”, wherein visual reasoning in mathematics came to be thought to be epistemically problematic. Hahn described this “crisis” as (...)
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