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  1. added 2020-08-14
    Recensione di 'The Outer Limits of Reason' (I limiti esterni della ragione) di Noson Yanofsky 403p (2013)(revisto 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In Benvenuti all'inferno sulla Terra: Bambini, Cambiamenti climatici, Bitcoin, Cartelli, Cina, Democrazia, Diversità, Disgenetica, Uguaglianza, Pirati Informatici, Diritti umani, Islam, Liberalismo, Prosperità, Web, Caos, Fame, Malattia, Violenza, Intellige. Las Vegas, NV, USA: Reality Press. pp. 182-196.
    Io do una recensione dettagliata di 'The Outer Limits of Reason' di Noson Yanofsky da una prospettiva unificata di Wittgenstein e psicologia evolutiva. Inditesto che la difficoltà con questioni come il paradosso nel linguaggio e nella matematica, l'incompletezza, l'indecidibilità, la computabilità, il cervello e l'universo come computer ecc., derivano tutto dall'incapacità di guardare attentamente al nostro uso del linguaggio nel contesto appropriato e quindi alla mancata separazione delle questioni di fatto scientifico dalle questioni di come funziona il linguaggio. Discuto le (...)
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  2. added 2020-07-25
    Rezension von "Die äußeren Grenzen der Vernunft " (The Outer Limits of Reason) von Noson Yanofsky 403p (2013) ( Überprüfung überarbeitet 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In Willkommen in der Hölle auf Erden: Babys, Klimawandel, Bitcoin, Kartelle, China, Demokratie, Vielfalt, Dysgenie, Gleichheit, Hacker, Menschenrechte, Islam, Liberalismus, Wohlstand, Internet, Chaos, Hunger, Krankheit, Gewalt, Künstliche Intelligenz, Krieg. Las Vegas, NV, USA: Reality Press. pp. 191-206.
    Ich gebe einen ausführlichen Überblick über 'The Outer Limits of Reason' von Noson Yanofsky aus einer einheitlichen Perspektive von Wittgenstein und Evolutionspsychologie. Ich weise darauf hin, dass die Schwierigkeit bei Themen wie Paradoxon in Sprache und Mathematik, Unvollständigkeit, Unbedenklichkeit, Berechenbarkeit, Gehirn und Universum als Computer usw. allesamt auf das Versäumnis zurückzuführen ist, unseren Sprachgebrauch im geeigneten Kontext sorgfältig zu prüfen, und daher das Versäumnis, Fragen der wissenschaftlichen Tatsache von Fragen der Funktionsweise von Sprache zu trennen. Ich bespreche Wittgensteins Ansichten über (...)
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  3. added 2020-07-19
    のレビュー"「理由の外側の限界"」(The Outer Limits of Reason) by Noson Yanofsky (2019年改訂レビュー).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In 地獄へようこそ 赤ちゃん、気候変動、ビットコイン、カルテル、中国、民主主義、多様性、ディスジェニックス、平等、ハッカー、人権、イスラム教、自由主義、繁栄、ウェブ、カオス、飢餓、病気、暴力、人工知能、戦争. Las Vegas, NV , USA: Reality Press. pp. 178-192.
    ノソン・ヤノフスキーの「理性の外側の限界」を、ウィトゲンシュタインと進化心理学の統一的な視点から詳しくレビューします。私は、言語や数学のパラドックス、不完全さ、デデシッド性、コンピュータとしての脳、宇 宙などの問題の難しさは、すべて適切な文脈での言語の使用を注意深く見なさなかったことから生じるため、科学的事実の問題を言語の仕組みの問題から切り離すことができなかったことを示しています。私は、不完全さ、 パラタンシ、不整合性に関するヴィトゲンシュタインの見解と、計算の限界に関するウォルパートの仕事について議論します。要約すると:ブルックリンによると宇宙---良い科学、それほど良い哲学ではありません。 現代の2つのシス・エムスの見解から人間の行動のための包括的な最新の枠組みを望む人は、私の著書「ルートヴィヒ・ヴィトゲンシュタインとジョン・サールの第2回(2019)における哲学、心理学、ミンと言語の論 理的構造」を参照することができます。私の著作の多くにご興味がある人は、運命の惑星における「話す猿--哲学、心理学、科学、宗教、政治―記事とレビュー2006-2019 第3回(2019)」と21世紀4日(2019年)の自殺ユートピア妄想st Century 4th ed (2019)などを見ることができます。 .
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  4. added 2020-07-18
    Wolpert, Chaitin and Wittgenstein 不可能性、不完全性、嘘つきパラドックス、 無神論、計算の限界、非量子力学的不確実性原理、そしてコンピューターとして の宇宙-チューリング機械理論の究極の定理 (2019年改訂レビュー).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In 地獄へようこそ 赤ちゃん、気候変動、ビットコイン、カルテル、中国、民主主義、多様性、ディスジェニックス、平等、ハッカー、人権、イスラム教、自由主義、繁栄、ウェブ、カオス、飢餓、病気、暴力、人工知能、戦争. Las Vegas,, NV , USA: Reality Press. pp. 173-177.
    私は計算と宇宙の限界に関する最近の議論をコンピュータとして読み、ポリマス物理学者と意思決定理論家デビッド・ウォルパートの驚くべき仕事に関するいくつかのコメントを見つけることを望んでいますが、単一の引用 を見つけていないので、私はこの非常に簡単な要約を提示します。ウォルパートは、計算を行うデバイスから独立し、物理学の法則から独立している推論(計算)の限界に関する驚くべき不可能または不完全な定理(199 2年から2008年のarxiv.org参照)を証明したので、コンピュータ、物理学、人間の行動に適用されます。彼らは、カントールの対角化、嘘つきのパラドックス、ワールドラインを利用して、チューリングマシ ン理論の究極の定理である可能性のあるものを提供し、不可能、不完全性、計算の限界、そしてコンピュータとしての宇宙に関する洞察を提供し、すべての可能な宇宙とすべての存在またはメカニズムを生み出し、とりわけ 非量子機械不確実性原理と単一主義の証明を生み出します。チャイティン、ソロモノフ、コモルガロフ、ヴィトゲンシュタインの古典的な作品と、どのプログラム(したがってデバイスも)が所有するよりも複雑なシーケン ス(またはデバイス)を生成できないという考えには明らかなつながりがあります。この作品の体は、物理的な宇宙よりも複雑な存在はあり得ないので無テズムを意味すると言うかもしれませんし、ヴィトゲンチニアンの観 点から見ると、「より複雑な」は無意味です(満足の条件はありません、すなわち、真実のメーカーやテスト)。「神」(つまり、無限の時間/空間とエネルギーを持つ「デバイス」)でさえ、与えられた「数」が「ランダ ム」であるかどうかを判断したり、与えられた「公式」、定理または「文章」または「デバイス」(これらはすべて複雑な言語ゲームである)が特定の「システム」の一部であることを示す特定の方法を見つけることができ ません。 現代の2つのシス・エムスの見解から人間の行動のための包括的な最新の枠組みを望む人は、私の著書「ルートヴィヒ・ヴィトゲンシュタインとジョン・サールの第2回(2019)における哲学、心理学、ミンと言語の論 理的構造」を参照することができます。私の著作の多くにご興味がある人は、21世紀4日(2019年)の「話す猿--哲学、心理学、科学、宗教、政治」を見ることができます。 .
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  5. added 2020-07-03
    On the Untrustworthiness of Axiomatic-Founded Science.Spyridon Kakos - 2020 - Harmonia Philosophica.
    The idea of science being the best – or the only – way to reach the truth about our cosmos has been a major belief of modern civilization. Yet, science has grown tall on fragile legs of clay. Every scientific theory uses axioms and assumptions that by definition cannot be proved. This poses a serious limitation to the use of science as a tool to find the truth. The only way to search for the latter is to redefine the former (...)
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  6. added 2020-06-14
    Обзор "Внешние границы разума" (The Outer Limits of Reason by Noson Yanofsky 403p (2013) (обзор пересмотрен 2019).Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In ДОБРО ПОЖАЛОВАТЬ В АД НА НАШЕМ МИРЕ : Дети, Изменение климата, Биткойн, Картели, Китай, Демократия, Разнообразие, Диссигеника, Равенство, Хакеры, Права человека, Ислам, Либерализм, Процветание, Сеть, Хаос, Голод, Болезнь, Насилие, Искусственный интелле. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 193-209.
    Я даю подробный обзор "Внешние границы разума" Носон Янофски с единой точки зрения Витгенштейна и эволюционной психологии. Я указываю, что трудности с такими вопросами, как парадокс в языке и математике, неполнота, несоответствие, вычислительность, мозг и вселенная, как компьютеры и т.д., все это возникает из-за неспособности внимательно посмотреть на наше использование языка в соответствующем контексте и, следовательно, неспособность отделить вопросы научного факта от вопросов о том, как работает язык. Я обсуждаю взгляды Витгенштейна на неполноту, последовательность и несоответствие и нерешающость и работу (...)
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  7. added 2020-06-11
    Ambivalence, Emotional Perceptions, and the Concern with Objectivity.Hili Razinsky - 2017 - Symposion: Theoretical and Applied Inquiries in Philosophy and Social Sciences 4 (2):211-228.
    Hili Razinsky, free downlad at link. ABSTRACT: Emotional perceptions are objectivist (objectivity-directed or cognitive) and conscious, both attributes suggesting they cannot be ambivalent. Yet perceptions, including emotional perceptions of value, allow for strictly objectivist ambivalence in which a person unitarily perceives the object in mutually undermining ways. Emotional perceptions became an explicandum of emotion for philosophers who are sensitive to the unique conscious character of emotion, impressed by the objectivist character of perceptions, and believe that the perceptual account solves a (...)
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  8. added 2020-06-08
    Wolpert, Chaitin and Wittgenstein 불가능, 불완전 성, 거짓말 쟁이 역설, 신념, 전산 한계, 비 양자 역학적 불확실성 원리 및 -Turing 기계 이론의 궁극적 이론(.Michael Richard Starks - 2020 - In 지구상의 지옥에 오신 것을 환영합니다 : 아기, 기후 변화, 비트 코인, 카르텔, 중국, 민주주의, 다양성, 역학, 평등, 해커, 인권, 이슬람, 자유주의, 번영, 웹, 혼돈, 기아, 질병, 폭력, 인공 지능, 전쟁. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 201-209.
    나는 컴퓨터로 계산과 우주의 한계에 대한 많은 최근의 토론을 읽었습니다, polymath 물리학자 및 결정 이론가 데이비드 울퍼트의 놀라운 작품에 대한 몇 가지 의견을 찾을 수 있기를 바라고 있지만 하나의 인용을 발견하지 않은 그래서 나는이 매우 간단한 요약을 제시. Wolpert는 계산을 수행하는 장치와 는 별개이며 물리학법칙과는 무관하므로 컴퓨터, 물리학 및 인간의 행동에 적용되므로 추론(계산)에 대한 제한에 대해 놀라운 불가능또는 불완전성 정리(1992년에서 2008년 참조 arxiv dot org)를 입증했습니다. 그들은 캔터의 대각선화, 거짓말쟁이 역설 및 세계관을 사용하여 튜링 머신 이론의 궁극적 인 정리가 될 (...)
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  9. added 2020-02-11
    Paradigms and Self-Reference: What is the Point of Asserting Paradoxical Sentences?Jakub Mácha - 2020 - In Shyam Wuppuluri & Newton da Costa (eds.), Wittgensteinian (adj.): Looking at the World from the Viewpoint of Wittgenstein's Philosophy. Cham, Švýcarsko: pp. 123-134.
    A paradox, according to Wittgenstein, is something surprising that is taken out of its context. Thus, one way of dealing with paradoxical sentences is to imagine the missing context of use. Wittgenstein formulates what I call the paradigm paradox: ‘one sentence can never describe the paradigm in another, unless it ceases to be a paradigm.’ (PG, p.346) There are several instances of this paradox scattered throughout Wittgenstein’s writings. I argue that this paradox is structurally equivalent to Russell’s paradox. The above (...)
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  10. added 2019-11-29
    Reseña de 'The Outer Limits of Reason' por Noson Yanofsky 403p (2013).Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - In Observaciones Sobre Imposibilidad, Incompleta, Paracoherencia,Indecisión,Aleatoriedad, Computabilidad, Paradoja E Incertidumbre En Chaitin, Wittgenstein, Hofstadter, Wolpert, Doria, Dacosta, Godel, Searle, Rodych, Berto,Floyd, Moyal-Sharrock Y Yanofsky. Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press. pp. 71-90.
    Doy una revisión detallada de ' los límites externos de la razón ' por Noson Yanofsky desde una perspectiva unificada de Wittgenstein y la psicología evolutiva. Yo indiqué que la dificultad con cuestiones como la paradoja en el lenguaje y las matemáticas, la incompletitud, la indeterminación, la computabilidad, el cerebro y el universo como ordenadores, etc., surgen de la falta de mirada cuidadosa a nuestro uso del lenguaje en el adecuado contexto y, por tanto, el Error al separar los problemas (...)
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  11. added 2019-11-14
    Paradoxical Hypodoxes.Alexandre Billon - 2019 - Synthese 196 (12):5205-5229.
    Most paradoxes of self-reference have a dual or ‘hypodox’. The Liar paradox (Lr = ‘Lr is false’) has the Truth-Teller (Tt = ‘Tt is true’). Russell’s paradox, which involves the set of sets that are not self-membered, has a dual involving the set of sets which are self-membered, etc. It is widely believed that these duals are not paradoxical or at least not as paradoxical as the paradoxes of which they are duals. In this paper, I argue that some paradox’s (...)
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  12. added 2019-11-10
    Paradoxuri cauzale în călătoria în timp.Nicolae Sfetcu - manuscript
    Orice teorie care ar permite călătoria în timp ar introduce probleme de cauzalitate. Aceste tipuri de paradoxuri temporale pot fi evitate prin principiul de consecvență Novikov sau printr-o variație a interpretării multor lumi cu lumi care interacționează. Argumentul clasic împotriva cauzalității înapoi este argumentul bilking, Dacă un eveniment A provoacă un eveniment anterior B, bilking recomandă o încercare de a decorela A și B, adică de a aduce A în cazurile în care B nu a avut loc și de a (...)
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  13. added 2019-09-12
    Inconsistency and Replacement.Matti Eklund - 2019 - Inquiry: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Philosophy 62 (4):387-402.
    The article is an extended critical discussion of Kevin Scharp’s Replacing Truth. Scharp’s case for the claim that the concept of truth is inconsistent is criticized, and so is his case for the claim that the concept of truth must be replaced because of its inconsistency.
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  14. added 2019-08-28
    Pernyataan tentang kemustahilan, ketidaklengkapan, Paraconsistency,Undecidability, Randomness, Komputabilitas, paradoks, dan ketidakpastian dalam Chaitin, Wittgenstein, Hofstadter, Wolpert, Doria, da Costa, Godel, Searle, Rodych, Berto, Floyd, Moyal-Sharrock dan Yanofsky.Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    Hal ini sering berpikir bahwa kemustahilan, ketidaklengkapan, Paraconsistency, Undecidability, Randomness, komputasi, Paradox, ketidakpastian dan batas alasan yang berbeda ilmiah fisik atau matematika masalah memiliki sedikit atau tidak ada dalam Umum. Saya menyarankan bahwa mereka sebagian besar masalah filosofis standar (yaitu, Permainan bahasa) yang sebagian besar diselesaikan oleh Wittgenstein lebih dari 80years yang lalu. -/- "Apa yang kita ' tergoda untuk mengatakan ' dalam kasus seperti ini, tentu saja, bukan filsafat, tetapi bahan baku. Jadi, misalnya, apa yang seorang matematikawan cenderung mengatakan (...)
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  15. added 2019-08-28
    असंभव, अपूर्णता, अनिर्णय, अनिर्णय, यादृच्छिकता, गणना, विरोधाभास, और चैटिन, विटगेनस्टीन, Hofstadter, Wolpert, डोरिया, दा कोस्टा, गोडेल, सीरले, Rodych, Berto, Floyd में अनिश्चितता पर टिप्पणी मोयाल-शररॉक और यानोफ्स्की.Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    यह आमतौर पर सोचा जाता है कि असंभवता, अपूर्णता, Paraconsistency, अनिर्णितता, Randomness, Computability, विरोधाभास, अनिश्चितता और कारण की सीमा अलग वैज्ञानिक शारीरिक या गणितीय मुद्दों में कम या कुछ भी नहीं कर रहे हैं आम. मेरा सुझाव है कि वे काफी हद तक मानक दार्शनिक समस्याओं (यानी, भाषा का खेल) जो ज्यादातर 80years पहले Wittgenstein द्वारा हल किए गए थे. -/- "क्या हम 'इस तरह के एक मामले में कहने के लिए' कर रहे हैं, ज़ाहिर है, दर्शन नहीं है, लेकिन (...)
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  16. added 2019-08-25
    Замечания о невозможности, неполноте Paraconsistency, Нерешающость, Случайность вычислительности, парадокс, и неопределенность в Чайтин, Витгенштейн, Хофштадтер Вольперт, Дориа, да Коста, Годель, Сирл, Родыч Берто, Флойд, Мойал-Шаррок и Янофски.Michael Richard Starks - 2019 - Las Vegas, NV USA: Reality Press.
    Принято считать, что невозможность, неполнота, Парапоследовательность, Несоответствие, Случайность, вычислительность, парадокс, неопределенность и пределы разума являются разрозненными научными физическими или математическими вопросами, имеющими мало или ничего общего. Я полагаю, что они в значительной степени стандартные философские проблемы (т.е. языковые игры), которые были в основном решены Витгенштейном более 80 лет назад. -/- Я предоставляю краткое резюме некоторых из основных выводов двух из самых выдающихся студентов поведения о Fсовременности, Людвиг Витгенштейн и Джон Сирл, на логическую структуру преднамеренности (ум, язык, поведение), принимая в качестве (...)
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  17. added 2019-06-03
    Reasoning About Uncertain Conditionals.Niki Pfeifer - 2014 - Studia Logica 102 (4):849-866.
    There is a long tradition in formal epistemology and in the psychology of reasoning to investigate indicative conditionals. In psychology, the propositional calculus was taken for granted to be the normative standard of reference. Experimental tasks, evaluation of the participants’ responses and psychological model building, were inspired by the semantics of the material conditional. Recent empirical work on indicative conditionals focuses on uncertainty. Consequently, the normative standard of reference has changed. I argue why neither logic nor standard probability theory provide (...)
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  18. added 2019-04-14
    Is Classical Mathematics Appropriate for Theory of Computation?Farzad Didehvar - manuscript
    Throughout this paper, we are trying to show how and why our Mathematical frame-work seems inappropriate to solve problems in Theory of Computation. More exactly, the concept of turning back in time in paradoxes causes inconsistency in modeling of the concept of Time in some semantic situations. As we see in the first chapter, by introducing a version of “Unexpected Hanging Paradox”,first we attempt to open a new explanation for some paradoxes. In the second step, by applying this paradox, it (...)
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  19. added 2019-03-12
    Paradoxes and Their Resolutions.Avi Sion - 2017 - Geneva, Switzerland: CreateSpace & Kindle; Lulu..
    Paradoxes and their Resolutions is a ‘thematic compilation’ by Avi Sion. It collects in one volume the essays that he has written in the past (over a period of some 27 years) on this subject. It comprises expositions and resolutions of many (though not all) ancient and modern paradoxes, including: the Protagoras-Euathlus paradox (Athens, 5th Cent. BCE), the Liar paradox and the Sorites paradox (both attributed to Eubulides of Miletus, 4th Cent. BCE), Russell’s paradox (UK, 1901) and its derivatives the (...)
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  20. added 2019-01-16
    La matematica moderna e Zenone.Alessio Gava - 1999 - Esercizi Filosofici 4:127-138.
    Aspetti filosofico-matematici dei celebri paradossi di Zenone di Elea.
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  21. added 2018-12-03
    A Paradox of Failure.Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    I present a paradox concerning a person who desires to fail to achieve the goal that matters most to them. I recently encountered a similar paradox, but radical solipsism is a solution to it. This is not a solution to the paradox that I present.
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  22. added 2018-12-03
    Naïve Validity.Julien Murzi & Lorenzo Rossi - forthcoming - Synthese:1-23.
    Beall and Murzi :143–165, 2013) introduce an object-linguistic predicate for naïve validity, governed by intuitive principles that are inconsistent with the classical structural rules. As a consequence, they suggest that revisionary approaches to semantic paradox must be substructural. In response to Beall and Murzi, Field :1–19, 2017) has argued that naïve validity principles do not admit of a coherent reading and that, for this reason, a non-classical solution to the semantic paradoxes need not be substructural. The aim of this paper (...)
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  23. added 2018-08-02
    The Present and Future of Judgement Aggregation Theory. A Law and Economics Perspective.Philippe Mongin - forthcoming - In Jean-François Laslier, Hervé Moulin, Remzi Sanver & William S. Zwicker (eds.), The Future of Economic Design. New York: Springer.
    This chapter briefly reviews the present state of judgment aggregation theory and tentatively suggests a future direction for that theory. In the review, we start by emphasizing the difference between the doctrinal paradox and the discursive dilemma, two idealized examples which classically serve to motivate the theory, and then proceed to reconstruct it as a brand of logical theory, unlike in some other interpretations, using a single impossibility theorem as a key to its technical development. In the prospective part, having (...)
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  24. added 2018-06-27
    Three Dogmas of First-Order Logic and Some Evidence-Based Consequences for Constructive Mathematics of Differentiating Between Hilbertian Theism, Brouwerian Atheism and Finitary Agnosticism.Bhupinder Singh Anand - manuscript
    We show how removing faith-based beliefs in current philosophies of classical and constructive mathematics admits formal, evidence-based, definitions of constructive mathematics; of a constructively well-defined logic of a formal mathematical language; and of a constructively well-defined model of such a language. -/- We argue that, from an evidence-based perspective, classical approaches which follow Hilbert's formal definitions of quantification can be labelled `theistic'; whilst constructive approaches based on Brouwer's philosophy of Intuitionism can be labelled `atheistic'. -/- We then adopt what may (...)
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  25. added 2018-05-17
    Defusing the Miners Paradox.Michael J. Shaffer - 2018 - Filosofiska Notiser 5:57-67.
    This paper presents a case for the claim that the infamous miners paradox is not a paradox. This contention is based on some important observations about the nature of ignorance with respect to both disjunctions and conditional obligations and their modal features. The gist of the argument is that given the uncertainty about the location of the miners in the story and the nature of obligations, the apparent obligation to block either mine shaft is cancelled.
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  26. added 2018-03-18
    An Ancient Paradox Applied to the Difference Principle (with the Help of Cryptocurrencies).Terence Rajivan Edward - manuscript
    John Rawls’s difference principle says that we should change our economy if doing so is better for the worst-off group, on the condition that certain basic rights are secured. This paper presents a kind of case that challenges the principle. If we modify the principle to cope with the challenge, we open the way to a Sorites paradox.
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  27. added 2018-02-13
    The Cut‐Free Approach and the Admissibility‐Curry.Ulf Hlobil - 2018 - Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 7 (1):40-48.
    The perhaps most important criticism of the nontransitive approach to semantic paradoxes is that it cannot truthfully express exactly which metarules preserve validity. I argue that this criticism overlooks that the admissibility of metarules cannot be expressed in any logic that allows us to formulate validity-Curry sentences and that is formulated in a classical metalanguage. Hence, the criticism applies to all approaches that do their metatheory in classical logic. If we do the metatheory of nontransitive logics in a nontransitive logic, (...)
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  28. added 2018-02-05
    A Dialogue with I ! حوار مع أنا.Salah Osman - manuscript
    هل يمكن إذن أن أكون أنا لست أنا بانطباعات الزمان على جسدي وفكري؟ أليس لي جوهرٌ ثابتٌ تتبدل عليه الأعراض من حين إلى آخر، ومن ثم لا أفقد هويتي الحقيقية؟ لقد وُلدت منذ سنوات خلت، وتعلمت وعلمت أنني هو أنا، ويعلم المحيطون بي أنني هو أنا، بل يستطيع العلم المعاصر أن يُثبت أن لي تركيبًا جينيًا وراثيًا يميزني عن غيري، وأن لي بصمات أصابع وبصمة صوت لا تتطابق مع بصمات غيري، وسيحاسبني ربي يوم العرض عليه بوصفي شخصًا واحدًا هو أنا؛ (...)
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  29. added 2018-01-23
    The Surprise Exam Paradox: A Note on Formulating It and a Solution to It.Terence Rajivan Edward - 2019 - Ethos: Dialogues in Philosophy and Social Sciences 12 (2):181-186.
    Some formulations of the surprise paradox involve a pair of unnecessary and controversial assumptions. After casting doubt on these assumptions, I propose a solution to the paradox.
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  30. added 2017-10-27
    A Multimodal Pragmatic Treatment of the Knowability Paradox.Massimiliano Carrara, Daniele Chiffi & Davide Sergio - 2017 - In Gillman Payette & Rafal Urbaniak (eds.), Applications of Formal Philosophy. The Road Less Travelled. Berlin: Springer International Publishing AG. pp. 195-209.
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  31. added 2017-06-06
    EFQ and the Unexpected Examination Paradox.Gabriele Rastello - 2017
    Analysis of the surprise examination paradox supporting the idea that the students’ conclusion is not wrong but simply contradictory.
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  32. added 2017-06-06
    The Role of Reflexivity in Understanding Human Understanding.Steven James Bartlett - 1992 - In Steven J. Bartlett (ed.), Reflexivity: A Source-Book in Self-Reference. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Distributors for the U.S. And Canada, Elsevier Science Pub. Co.. pp. 3--18.
    The Introduction to the collection of papers, _Reflexivity: A Source-book in Self-reference_. The Introduction studies the limits of our understanding that we carry unavoidably with us. We are perpetually confined within the horizons of our conceptual structure. When this structure grows or expands, the breadth of our comprehensions enlarges, but we are forever barred from the wished-for glimpse beyond its boundaries, no matter how hard we try, no matter how much credence we invest in the substance of our learning and (...)
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  33. added 2017-01-22
    'What the Tortoise Said to Achilles': Lewis Carroll's Paradox of Inference.Amirouche Moktefi & Francine F. Abeles (eds.) - 2016 - London: The Lewis Carroll Society.
    Lewis Carroll’s 1895 paper, 'What the Tortoise Said to Achilles' is widely regarded as a classic text in the philosophy of logic. This special issue of 'The Carrollian' publishes five newly commissioned articles by experts in the field. The original paper is reproduced, together with contemporary correspondence relating to the paper and an extensive bibliography.
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  34. added 2016-12-08
    Reflexivity Imagined as Art Practise.Donald Brierley - 2015 - Dissertation, Usyd
    A consideration of the relationship between conscious self-aware systems and art. I introduce my art practice and demonstrate the connections language has to self-conscious reflexivity. The document of research can be considered part of a creative practice that also uses language as a material. The specialist use and subversive manipulation of information in science and art as practiced in the service of culture are discussed to show how this informed the creation of Access Restricted-Operational Reasons as a response to my (...)
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  35. added 2016-12-08
    Can Fregeans Have 'I'-Thoughts?Alexandre Billon & Marie Guillot - 2014 - Revista de Filosofía de la Universidad de Costa Rica (136):97-105.
    We examine how Frege’s contrast between identity judgments of the forms “a=a” vs. “a=b” would fare in the special case where ‘a’ and ‘b’ are complex mental representations, and ‘a’ stands for an introspected ‘I’-thought. We first argue that the Fregean treatment of I-thoughts entails that they are what we call “one-shot thoughts”: they can only be thought once. This has the surprising consequence that no instance of the “a=a” form of judgment in this specific case comes out true, let (...)
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  36. added 2016-10-16
    Benardete’s Paradox and the Logic of Counterfactuals.Michael Caie - 2018 - Analysis 78 (1):22-34.
    I consider a puzzling case presented by Jose Benardete, and by appeal to this case develop a paradox involving counterfactual conditionals. I then show that this paradox may be leveraged to argue for certain non-obvious claims concerning the logic of counterfactuals.
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  37. added 2016-05-19
    INVENTING LOGIC: THE LÖWENHEIM-SKOLEM THEOREM AND FIRST- AND SECOND-ORDER LOGIC.Valérie Lynn Therrien - 2012 - Pensées Canadiennes 10.
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  38. added 2016-05-12
    Higher-Order Free Logic and the Prior-Kaplan Paradox.Andrew Bacon, John Hawthorne & Gabriel Uzquiano - 2016 - Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (4-5):493-541.
    The principle of universal instantiation plays a pivotal role both in the derivation of intensional paradoxes such as Prior’s paradox and Kaplan’s paradox and the debate between necessitism and contingentism. We outline a distinctively free logical approach to the intensional paradoxes and note how the free logical outlook allows one to distinguish two different, though allied themes in higher-order necessitism. We examine the costs of this solution and compare it with the more familiar ramificationist approaches to higher-order logic. Our assessment (...)
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  39. added 2016-02-25
    Justifying a Large Part of Philosophy.Bryan Frances - 2019 - Think 18 (51):93-99.
    I explain why research in non-applied, non-interdisciplinary, non-historical philosophy is worthwhile. The key move in the explanation is the realization that many philosophical problems can be put in the form of a set of highly plausible yet apparently jointly inconsistent claims regarding a fundamental notion.Export citation.
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  40. added 2015-09-29
    A Contradiction and P=NP Problem.Farzad Didehvar - manuscript
    Here, by introducing a version of “Unexpected hanging paradox” first we try to open a new way and a new explanation for paradoxes, similar to liar paradox. Also, we will show that we have a semantic situation which no syntactical logical system could support it. Finally, we propose a claim in Theory of Computation about the consistency of this Theory. One of the major claim is:Theory of Computation and Classical Logic leads us to a contradiction.
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  41. added 2015-09-18
    The Solution to the Real Blackmail Paradox: The Common Link Between Blackmail and Other Criminal Threats.Ken Levy - 2007 - Connecticut Law Review 39:1051-1096.
    Disclosure of true but reputation-damaging information is generally legal. But threats to disclose true but reputation-damaging information unless payment is made are generally criminal. Many scholars think that this situation is paradoxical because it seems to involve illegality mysteriously arising out of legality, a criminal act mysteriously arising out of an independently legal threat to disclose conjoined with an independently legal demand for money. -/- But this formulation is not quite right. The real paradox raised by the different legal statuses (...)
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  42. added 2015-09-15
    Involvement and Detachment: A Paradox of Practical Reasoning.Peter Baumann - 2004 - In Peter Baumann & Monika Betzler (eds.), Practical Conflicts. Cambridge University Press. pp. 244-261.
    For each of the many goals of an agent it is true that the agent wants its realization. Given further very plausible assumptions, one can show that there is no good reason for an agent not to want the realization of all of his goals. However, it seems also true that reaching all of one’s goals would be extremely boring; most human beings would consider such a life not worth living. In this respect, leading a life is like playing some (...)
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  43. added 2015-09-04
    A Presentation Without an Example?Arnold Zuboff - 1992 - Analysis 52 (3):190 - 191.
    This article presents a paradox of inclusion, like Russell’s paradox but in a natural language.
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  44. added 2015-06-21
    Resolving the Ineffability Paradox.Chien-Hsing Ho - 2015 - In Arindam Chakrabarti & Ralph Weber (eds.), Comparative Philosophy without Borders. London: Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 69-82.
    A number of contemporary philosophers think that the unqualified statement “X is unspeakable” faces the danger of self-referential absurdity: if this statement is true, it must simultaneously be false, given that X is speakable by the predicate word “unspeakable.” This predicament is in this chapter formulated as an argument that I term the “ineffability paradox.” After examining the Buddhist semantic theory of apoha (exclusion) and an apoha solution to the issue, I resort to a few Chinese Buddhist and Hindu philosophical (...)
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  45. added 2015-05-04
    A Value-Based Solution to the Surprise Exam Paradox.Terence Rajivan Edward - 2018 - Philosophical Pathways (221):1-2.
    I identify an assumption that the students should not rely on: if the teacher believes that the exam would not be a surprise on a certain day, the teacher will not give the exam on that day. The reason I present for not making this assumption does not involve doubting the moral goodness of the teacher. But it does involve making a value judgment.
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  46. added 2015-04-17
    A Solution to the Surprise Exam Paradox.Terence Rajivan Edward - 2017 - Filozofia 72 (4):325-327.
    The students’ argument against the possibility of a surprise exam assumes that the following would not occur: the teacher decides to give the exam on a certain day; the teacher believes that the exam would be a surprise on that day; but, actually, the exam would not be a surprise on that day. I give a reason to reject this assumption, and I point out that an attempt to reformulate the surprise exam paradox in order to allow for the assumption (...)
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  47. added 2014-11-20
    The Best Question.Achille C. Varzi - 2001 - Journal of Philosophical Logic 30 (3):251-258.
    Suppose we get a chance to ask an angel a question of our choice. What should we ask to make the most of our unique opportunity? Ned Markosian has shown that the task is trickier than it might seem. Ted Sider has suggested playing safe and asking: What is the true proposition (or one of the true propositions) that would be most beneficial for us to be told? Let's see whether we can do any better than that.
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  48. added 2014-11-14
    Valor de Verdad.John Corcoran - 2011 - In Luis Vega and Paula Olmos (ed.), Compendio de Lógica, Argumentación y Retórica. Editorial Trotta. pp. 627--629.
    Down through the ages, logic has adopted many strange and awkward technical terms: assertoric, prove, proof, model, constant, variable, particular, major, minor, and so on. But truth-value is a not a typical example. Every proposition, even if false, no matter how worthless, has a truth-value:even “one plus two equals four” and “one is not one”. In fact, every two false propositions have the same truth-value—no matter how different they might be, even if one is self-contradictory and one is consistent. It (...)
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  49. added 2014-10-16
    On Concrete Universals: A Modern Treatment Using Category Theory.David Ellerman - 2014 - AL-Mukhatabat.
    Today it would be considered "bad Platonic metaphysics" to think that among all the concrete instances of a property there could be a universal instance so that all instances had the property by virtue of participating in that concrete universal. Yet there is a mathematical theory, category theory, dating from the mid-20th century that shows how to precisely model concrete universals within the "Platonic Heaven" of mathematics. This paper, written for the philosophical logician, develops this category-theoretic treatment of concrete universals (...)
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  50. added 2014-08-14
    A Conscientious Resolution of the Action Paradox on Buridan's Bridge'.Joseph W. Ulatowski - 2003 - Southwest Philosophical Studies 25:85-93.
    The aim of this paper is to offer a critical assessment of Buridan's proposed solution to the bridge-keeper paradox. First, I will outline his proposed solution to the paradox, and, second, carefully analyse each issue mentioned in the proposed solution. Finally, I will attempt to conclude that Burden has implicitly accepted a three-valued logic that does not allow him to conclude that Plato ought not do anything.
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1 — 50 / 66