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  1. Anticipating Global Justice: Confucianism and Mohism in Classical China.George Tsai - 2019 - In Jun-Hyeok Kwak & Hugo El-Kholi (eds.), Global Justice in East Asia. Routledge.
    This paper argues that debates between the Confucians and Mohists in Classical China anticipate contemporary discussions in political philosophy. Specifically, their debates about our responsibilities to other people are akin to debates between Rawlsans, Cosmopolitans, and Utilitarians about the content of our political obligations to other people, and about the proper scope of application of norms of justice.
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  2. An Illustrated Introduction to Taoism: The Wisdom of the Sages. [REVIEW]Samuel Bendeck Sotillos - 2016 - Sacred Web: A Journal of Tradition and Modernity 38:101-107.
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  3. Re-examining Human Rights Discourse after the Jewish and the Chinese Holocausts, via Confucius and Levinas.Sinkwan Cheng - 2013 - International Institute for Asian Studies Newsletter 64.
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  4. “Translation, Power Hierarchy, and the Globalization of the Concept `Human Rights’: Potential Contributions from Confucianism Missed by the UDHR.”.Sinkwan Cheng - 2015 - Age of Human Rights Journal 4:1-33.
    This essay strikes new paths for investigating the politics of translation and the (non-) universality of the concept of “human rights” by engaging them in a critical dialogue. Part I of my essay argues that a truly universal concept would have available linguistic equivalents in all languages. On this basis, I develop translation into a tool for disproving the claim that the concept human rights is universal. An inaccurate claim to universality could be made to look valid, however, if one (...)
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  5. “Confucius, Aristotle, and a New `Right’ to Connect China to the West: What Concepts of `Self’ and `Right’ We Might Have without the Christian Notion of Original Sin?” Self or No-Self? The Debate about Selflessness and the Sense of Self, ed. Ingolf U. Dalferth. 269-299. (DOI: 10.1628/978-3-16-155355-4).Sinkwan Cheng (ed.) - 2017 - Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck.
    Concepts of “self” and “right” in three civilizations: primarily Confucian and ancient Greek, with references to Aristotle’s medieval Christian commentators; Uses the classical Greek and Chinese traditions’ common incompatibility with modern liberal notion of “right” to explore the commonalities between them, and on that basis endeavors to connect the East to the West with a “right” that could better harmonize the self with society, right with duty, and negative with positive freedom.
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  6. From Confucius to Coding and Avicenna to Algorithms: Cultivating Ethical AI Development through Cross-Cultural Ancient Wisdom.Ammar Younas & Yi Zeng - manuscript
    This paper explores the potential of integrating ancient educational principles from diverse eastern cultures into modern AI ethics curricula. It draws on the rich educational traditions of ancient China, India, Arabia, Persia, Japan, Tibet, Mongolia, and Korea, highlighting their emphasis on philosophy, ethics, holistic development, and critical thinking. By examining these historical educational systems, the paper establishes a correlation with modern AI ethics principles, advocating for the inclusion of these ancient teachings in current AI development and education. The proposed integration (...)
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  7. Is Confucian Political Meritocracy a Viable Alternative to Democracy? A Critical Engagement with Tongdong Bai.Yun Tang - 2023 - Journal of Value Inquiry 57 (4):625-640.
    In lieu of Abstract: With inequality of various sorts ballooning worldwide, a critique of democracy has come of age, and a change of political ethos is underway. Against this background, the critique of democracy becomes not only possible but also popular, and examples in China and many Western democracies abound. It is no exaggeration to say, in this context, that sufficient momentum has gathered to qualify the situation as "democratic recession," despite people may have different understandings as to the exact (...)
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  8. Exploring the Sincerity of the Will: Comparative Analysis of Chu Hsi, Wang Yang-ming, and Śaṅkara.Wesley De Sena - manuscript
    This paper primarily focuses on a pivotal argument within "The Great Learning" between Chu Hsi and Wang Yang-ming. Specifically, this argument revolves around whether one should prioritize investigating things before cultivating the sincerity of will or vice versa. In simpler terms, does genuine sincerity need to precede the exploration of a matter one deeply cares about, or does sincerity naturally evolve due to the initial investigation of the issue? Through thoroughly exploring various issues stemming from Chu Hsi's perspective, I contend (...)
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  9. The Way of Humanity: Confucian Wisdom for an Opening World, Teachings of the Korean Philosopher, Haengchon (2nd edition).Edward R. Canda - 2022 - Lawrence: University of Kansas Libraries.
    The Way of Humanity, second edition, presents a Confucian vision for personal and social transformation intended to bring about a worldwide social order of harmony, dignity, and justice for all peoples, beyond divisive sectarianism and nationalism. It is based on ideals for human flourishing gleaned from Confucian and Neo-Confucian thought as distilled by a highly respected elder philosopher in South Korea, Yi Dong Jun, PhD (Haengchon, literary name). He is Professor Emeritus of the College of Confucian Studies and Eastern Philosophy (...)
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  10. The State of the Field Report X: Contemporary Chinese Studies of Tianxia (All-Under-Heaven).Yun Tang - 2023 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 22 (3):473-490.
    This article offers a critical overview of a set of normative theories, namely Tianxia 天下 (all-under-heaven), whose purpose is to provide a renewed conceptual framework for the improvement of the world system. First, the article introduces the origins, main features, and differences within Tianxia, before discussing two major criticisms leveled against it. The article then argues that the most powerful parts of these criticisms come from the challenges posed against Tianxia’s legitimacy. The article elaborates on this and introduces two additional (...)
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  11. 「一心開二門」:一個吸納佛教的神學思考歷程.Wat Simon - 2022 - Cultural China 111:79-85.
    本文嘗試探求基督教發展一心開二門之可能性。按牟宗三先生的「普遍性共同模型」之說,揭示基督教啟示觀的二門結構,從而揉合大乘佛教義理,指出聖靈乃是如來藏,如實道來開啟基督徒的如來藏心,即阿摩羅識。在基督十 架的復和之下,真如與生滅兩法門和合,以至聖靈在信徒阿摩羅識中統攝阿賴耶識這兩法門,基督徒因而能一心開二門而不受雜染,亦能向世人揭示 世間一切法背後的永恆價值,基督教進而可與文化對話。這也開拓了探求大乘基督教文化神學之路。.
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  12. Harris, Eirik Lang, and Henrique Schneider, eds., Adventures in Chinese Realism: Classic Philosophy Applied to Contemporary Issues.Yun Tang - 2023 - Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 22 (2):331-333.
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  13. Contextual and Structural Explanations in the Philosophy of Language: Differences Between Western and Chinese Orientations of Thought as Observed Through the Use of the Subjunctive Mood.Baoya Chen & Runnan Liu - 2017 - Journal of Human Cognition 1 (1):53-72.
    Compared with Western Philosophy, Chinese Philosophy seldom talks about "the other world". This difference can be further proved in language categories. What exists in language text is different from what exists in language structure or language categories. Language categories reflect the styles of deep thinking. The lacking of subjunctive in Chinese language reflects the indifference between facts and ultra-facts in Chinese minds. There is a pan-fact attention in Chinese culture, while an ultra-fact attention in Western culture. This difference also embodies (...)
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  14. Theoretical Certainty: The Qian-Jia Rationalism.Shengli Feng - 2017 - Journal of Human Cognition 1 (1):40-52.
    In the 16th century, western science made a great leap. Meanwhile, in China, the development of textual criticism (including scholars Gu Yanwu 1613-1682, Dai Zhen 1724-1777, Duan Yucai 1735-1815, Wang Niansun 1744-1832) also facilitated the development of scientific factors (Hu Shi 1967).This paper argues that Qian-Jia scholars爷work represented a new era of traditional research that the value of scholarships and intellectual work (starting from Gu Yanwu 1613-1682, Dai Zhen 1724-1777, Duan Yucai 1735-1815, Wang Niansun 1744-1832, etc.) is essentially based on (...)
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  15. Theosis and Sageliness: Regaining Humanism through a Christian-Chinese Thought Synthesis.Joshua Jose Ocon - 2023 - Theoria: The Academic Journal of the San Carlos Seminary Philosophy Department 6 (2):47-69.
    The humanism of modernity, in its exclusive reliance on rationality and the scientific method, has been viewed as a pejorative understanding of ‘man’ that deliberately isolates it from the divine. This paper attempts to regain humanism from its position that seems to jeopardize the human tendency for the Transcendent through a synthesis of Chinese philosophy and the major tenets of Christianity. A close analysis of the predominant Chinese thought in Lao Tzu and Confucius shows that its entire history is characterized (...)
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  16. From Knowing the Mechanism to the Mechanism of Knowing: Eurasian Cultural Transfer and Hybrid Theologies of (Neo)Liberalism.Goran Kauzlarić - 2023 - In Slobodan G. Markovich (ed.), Cultural Transfer Europe-Serbia: Methodological Issues and Challenges. Belgrade: Faculty of Political Sciences; Dosije Studio. pp. 237-252.
    The founding fathers of neoliberalism are usually imagined as very rational neoclassical economists uninterested in cultural and religious issues. The aim of this paper is to paint a different picture by discussing the ideas of (neo)liberal economists regarding spiritual heritage, with an emphasis on eastern religions. Starting from the existing historiographical debate on the role of Daoist notions in the birth of political economy in 18th-century Europe, as an example of cultural transfer par excellence, argumentation develops into a comparative analysis (...)
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  17. Franklin Perkins, Doing What You Really Want: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mengzi.George Tsai - 2023 - Journal of Moral Philosophy 20 (1-2):198-201.
    Critical reflections on Franklin Perkins' Doing What You Really Want: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Mengzi. Raises some questions related to two main themes in the book: (1) Mengzi’s conception of human nature, and (2) Mengzi’s view of harmony and conflict in human life.
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  18. Education as Greek Paideia, Chinese Xué (學), and Deweyan Growth.Christopher Kirby - 2008 - In K. Boudouris (ed.), Paideia: Education in the Global Era, Vol I. Athens, Greece:
    CONFERENCE PAPER: In the early 20th century, John Dewey helped revolutionize the way education was thought of in the United States. Nearly fifty years after his death, however, much of his vision is still yet to be realized. Perhaps one explanation for this would be that educators have not yet embraced the most important feature of Dewey’s thinking on education, viz. that education as a cumulative process is a interwoven with the continuous developments in social and ethical life, indeed culture (...)
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  19. Confucius on the Five Constant Virtues.Robert Joseph Wahing - manuscript
    Abstract Human by nature are social beings. They tend to connect and relate with one another in spite of the individual differences they possess. As to the famous quote of an English poet John Donne, “No man is an island.” Man should necessarily relate with one another in order to thrive. But bearing in mind the individual differences of human beings, we cannot exclude the possibility of chaos, disorder, and discordance. That is why in a diverse society, man needs a (...)
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  20. Confucius and the varifocal stance.Karyn Lai & Mog Stapleton - 2022 - Behavioral and Brain Sciences 45:e260.
    We put the bifocal stance theory (BST) into dialogue with the Confucian approach to ritual. The aim of the commentary is two-fold: To draw on BST to provide an explanatory framework for a Confucian approach to social learning and, while doing so, to show how Chinese (Confucian) philosophy can contribute to debates in cultural evolution. -/- In response to: Jagiello, R., Heyes, C., & Whitehouse, H. (2022). Tradition and invention: The bifocal stance theory of cultural evolution. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, (...)
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  21. Leibniz: China's Friend in Europe. [REVIEW]Paul van Els - 2006 - China Nu 31:46–47.
    van Els, Paul. "Leibniz: China's vriend in Europa" (Leibniz: China's Friend in Europe) Review of Leibniz: Over de Natuurlijke Theologie van de Chinezen, by Karel van der Leeuw. China Nu 31, no. 2 (2006): 46–47.
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  22. Four Walls and a Roof Do Not Form a House. [REVIEW]Paul van Els - 2003 - China Nu 28:34–35.
    van Els, Paul. "Vier muren en een dak vormen geen huis" (Four Walls and a Roof Do Not Form a House). Review of 25 eeuwen oosterse filosofie, edited by Jan Bor and Karel van der Leeuw. China Nu 28, no. 4 (2003): 34–35.
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  23. Metaphors in Neo-Confucian Korean philosophy.Hannah H. Kim - 2022 - Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 80 (3):368–373.
    A metaphor is an effective way to show how something is to be conceived. In this article, I look at two Neo-Confucian Korean philosophical contexts—the Four-Seven debate and Book of the Imperial Pivot—and suggest that metaphors are philosophically expedient in two further contexts: when both intellect and emotion must be addressed; and when the aim of philosophizing is to produce behavioral change. Because Neo-Confucians had a conception of the mind that closely connected it to the heart (心 xin), metaphor’s empathy-inducing (...)
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  24. KOSMISCHER VERSTAND UND KREATIVITÄT - ALEXIS KARPOUZOS.Alexis Karpouzos - manuscript
    Wir leben in einem Universum, das aus vielen verschiedenen Perspektiven gesehen und erlebt werden kann. Deshalb müssen wir das Universum aus vielen verschiedenen Blickwinkeln betrachten. Alles und jeder ist eine Form des Universums, die sich auf eine bestimmte Weise ausdrückt. Mit anderen Worten, jeder von uns kann mit absoluter Gewissheit sagen: „Wir sind das Universum!“ Da wir das Universum sind, bietet jeder von uns eine wertvolle Perspektive, die die Beiträge aller und alles andere um uns herum ergänzt. Jeder von uns (...)
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  25. Epistemological Issues in Classical Chinese Philosophy (Review). [REVIEW]Robert Allinson - 1994 - China Review International 1:167-173.
    The stated intent of the volume is "to broaden the exposure of Chinese Studies outside America and Great Britain" (p. vii). In this respect, the book succeeds admirably, as one of its distinctive features is the introduction of German scholarly approaches to an Anglo-American audience. As this fills a lacuna in Chinese studies, this volume is to be welcomed.
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  26. Material Objects in Confucian and Aristotelian Metaphysics: The Inevitability of Hylomorphism.James Dominic Rooney - 2022 - Bloomsbury Academic.
    Hylomorphism is a metaphysical theory that accounts for the unity of the material parts of composite objects by appeal to a structure or ‘form’ characterizing those parts. I argue that hylomorphism is not merely a plausible or appealing solution to problems of material composition, but a position entailed by any coherent metaphysics of ordinary material objects. In fact, not only does hylomorphism have Aristotelian defenders, but it has had independent lives in both East and West. -/- I review three contemporary (...)
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  27. Rethinking the Rites Controversy: Kilian Stumpf's Acta Pekinensia and the Historical Dimensions of a Religious Quarrel.Gianamar Giovannetti-Singh - 2022 - Modern Intellectual History 19 (1):29-53.
    The Chinese rites controversy is typically characterized as a religious quarrel between different Catholic orders over whether it was permissible for Chinese converts to observe traditional rites and use the terms tian and shangdi to refer to the Christian God. As such, it is often argued that the conflict was shaped predominantly by the divergent theological attitudes between the rites-supporting Jesuits and their anti-rites opponents towards “accommodation.” By examining the Jesuit missionary Kilian Stumpf's Acta Pekinensia—a detailed chronicle of the papal (...)
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  28. Philosophies of Archery.Enea Bianchi - 2021 - Popular Inquiry. The Journal of Kitsch, Camp and Mass Culture 2:22-37.
    This article investigates how different philosophical traditions and schools of thought have understood the practice and the discipline of archery. Whereas the scholarly literature on the history, the techniques and the uses of bows and arrows is diverse and extensive, my aim is to contribute to the less developed research on the relationship between philosophy and archery. Specifically, I will explore in what terms philosophers have employed the bow as a metaphor for both their standpoints and, more generally, significant aspects (...)
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  29. Asian Philosophies and the Idea of Religion: Beyond Faith and Reason.Sonia Sikka & Ashwani Peetush (eds.) - 2021 - Oxon, UK: Routledge.
    With a focus on Asian philosophical traditions, this book examines varieties of philosophical thought and self-transformative practice that do not fit neatly on one side or another of the standard Western division between philosophy and religion. It contains chapters by experts on Buddhist, Confucian, Taoist, Upaniṣadic and Jain philosophies, as well as ancient Greek philosophy and recent contemplative and spiritual movements. The authors problematize the notion of a European philosophical canon distinguished by "reason and rationality" in contrast to “religious Eastern (...)
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  30. Language, Culture and Philosophy : Comparing France and China.Jean Langlois-Berthelot & Xiaoman Yang - 2020 - ICC Journal-The International Language Association 2 (2):24-39.
    Xiaoman Yang and Jean Langlois-Berthelot explore the analysis by Chinese philosophers of Emmanuel Levinas, a 20th century French philosopher whose thinking had close links with the cultural philosophical principles of Confucius and Chan Buddhism. Their article is entitled "Language, Culture and Philosophy-Comparing France and China".
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  31. Virtue Ethics as Political Philosophy: The Structure of Ethical Theory in Early Chinese Philosophy.Yang Xiao - 2015 - In Michael Slote & Lorraine Besser-Jones (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Virtue Ethics. Routledge. pp. 471-489.
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  32. Aristotle, Confucius and Rousseau on Human Nature and the Golden Mean: A Comparative Analysis.Abidemi Israel Ogunyomi & Emmanuel Adetokunbo Ogundele - 2021 - Prajna Vihara 22 (1):71-84.
    Philosophers of different cultural traditions have written extensively on the nature of the human being. In the ancient times, Aristotle contended that human beings are not naturally good but are led to be good in the society through education. He also expounded a doctrine of the golden mean, a kind of middle-way philosophy, as a theory on how human beings learn to be good, achieve happiness and live the good life. In the modern times, Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau also provided (...)
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  33. China’s Meritocratic Examinations and the Ideal of Virtuous Talents.Chenyang Li & Hong Xiao - 2013 - In Daniel Bell & Chenyang Li (eds.), The East Asia Challenge for Democracy: Political Meritocracy in Comparative Perspective. pp. 340-362.
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  34. Zhuangzi and Aristotle on What a Thing Is.Chenyang Li - 2003 - In Comparative Approach to Chinese Philosophy. London: pp. 263-277.
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  35. Traditions as Configurations of Values.Chenyang Li - 2006 - In Dimitri Spivak & Evgeniy Lunyaev (eds.), Dynamics of Values in Contemporary Culture. St. Petersburg: Broadview Press. pp. 33-53.
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  36. Material Wellbeing and Cultivation of Character in Confucianism.Chenyang Li - 2014 - In L. Chenyang & Peimin Ni (eds.), Moral Cultivation and Confucian Character: Engaging Joel J. Kupperman. pp. 171-188.
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  37. 论竹帛《五行》关于德性之和的主题.Chenyang Li - 2014 - In Yaolong Zhang (ed.), 汉学鸣谦集. Johor, MY: pp. 199-134.
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  38. Community without Harmony? A Confucian Critique of Michael Sandel.Chenyang Li - 2017 - In Michael Sandel & Paul J. D’Ambrosio (eds.), Encountering China: Michael Sandel and Chinese Philosophy. pp. 3-18.
    Michael Sandel has been one of the most powerful critics of liberalism in the past decades. His work, especially in Liberalism and the Limits of Justice, exposes some of the fundamental flaws of Rawlsian liberalism and shows the need for a community-based framework in order for us to adequately understand and appreciate the concept of the individual and just society. Confucians can endorse many of Sandel’s critiques of liberalism. From a Confucian perspective, however, Sandel’s version of communitarianism is nevertheless too (...)
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  39. Supplementing Ames on Creativity: A Heideggerian Interpretation of Cheng.Chenyang Li - 2018 - In James Behuniak (ed.), Appreciating the Chinese Difference: Engaging Roger T. Ames on Methods, Issues, and Roles. pp. 133-158.
    I argue that a Heideggerian reading of the concept of cheng 誠 strengthens Roger Ames's interpretation of the Confucian concept by providing a grounding framework that connects various dimensions of the concept.
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  40. Active Harmony and Passive Harmony.Chenyang Li - 2021 - In Li Chenyang, Hang Kwok Sai & During Dascha (eds.), Harmony in Chinese Thought: A Philosophical Introduction. 美国马里兰州拉纳姆邮政编码: 20706: pp. 41-56.
    This essay analyses two kinds of harmony as exemplified in Confucianism and Daoism and examines their relation with domination and freedom.
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  41. Ethics and Leadership: Hobbesian Men, Gilliganian Women, and Confucian Asians.Chenyang Li & Hong Xiao - 2005 - East-West Connections 5:107-144.
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  42. Chinese Diaspora as People of Their Own Countries and Chinese Philosophy as World Philosophy.Chenyang Li & Hong Xiao - 2013 - Chinese Studies 漢学研究 2:63-84.
    In this essay, we will follow Tang Junyi’s lead in exploring issues related to Chinese diaspora and Chinese philosophy. While we largely endorse Tang’s call for overseas Chinese to establish themselves in their adopted lands, we will argue for a more nuanced view on the identity of Chinese people outside China: they are not marginalized individuals scattered out of “homeland” China, rather they are people legitimately established in their own respective countries. In this connection, we will also advance a view (...)
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  43. 全球华人和中国哲学的世界性.Chenyang Li & Hong Xiao - 2014 - 中山大学学报 54 (1):111-117.
    This paper explores the connections between being Chinese in various senses and the study of Chinese philosophy.
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  44. 物质富裕与道德修养: 先秦儒家的富德两难问题.Chenyang Li & Linna Liu - 2019 - Literature, History, and Philosophy 文史哲 5:101-109.
    道德修养是否必须以物质富裕为前提? 抑或物质贫困反而是历练并检验道德修养的必要条件? 先秦儒家对此表达了两种看似矛盾的观点,我们可以将此解读为早期儒家的“富德两难”问题.对此问题可以提出四种可能的解决方案,即分别主张:(一)上述两种观点一对一错;(二)物质富裕与物质贫困 分别对应不同德性;(三)物质价值与道德价值相互独立;(四)上述矛盾命题分别针对着不同而说教对象.然而,这四种处理方案,各有其文本解释与学理上的局限性.区分个人和社会两种视角,一方面强调个人在道德选择上 肩负着无法推卸的责任,另一方面从统计科学的角度看待社会整体道德水平与物质贫富之间的正相关关系,或为解释物质富裕与道德修养关系问题的有效思路.
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  45. How Can One Be A Taoist-Buddhist-Confucian? -A Chinese Illustration of Multiple Religious Participation.Chenyang Li - 1996 - International Review of Chinese Religion and Philosophy 1:29-66.
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  46. 竹帛《五行》关于德性和谐的思想研究 (“Harmony of Virtues in the Wuxing Bamboo Text”).Chenyang Li - 2011 - 国学学刊 12:59-66.
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  47. “文化传统的价值组合配置刍论”(On Cultural Configurations of Values).Chenyang Li - 2013 - 北京大学学报 2:32-40.
    本文对文化的价值多样性进行多元的理解,集中阐述和讨论“文化的价值组合配置”(cultural configurations of values)概念。主要包括以下几个要点:(1)在世界的各种文化中,人类的价值有不同的表现形式,但其基本价值是相似的,甚至相同的。(2)人类的各种基本价值之间不但有互相促进的关系,也有相互矛盾、相互竞 争、相互冲突的关系。(3)一种文化类型提供对相互冲突的价值的一种处理方式。不同的文化形成其各自的价值组合与配置。这种价值的配置与其社会环境相适应,是其文化的核心部分。文化差异性的一个重要方面就是,尽管 所有文化共有这些基本价值,但是他们会给予这些价值不同的权重,形成不同的价值配置形式。(4)有时在同一个社会里,会存在若干“亚文化”,会有不同的价值配置。随着时间的推移,文化和社会都会有改变。虽然它们在 价值组合配置普世化上可能永远无法达成一致,但是它们之间的共同价值为和平共处提供了基础。.
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  48. “儒家阴阳男女平等观新议” (A New Interpretation of Confucian Yinyang Philosophy for Gender Equality).Chenyang Li - 2018 - 船山学刊 1:13-16.
    In this essay I attempt to articulate a Confucian idea of gender equality from a perspective of yin-yang philosophy.
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  49. 比较的时代里的中国研究与‘以中释中’的论辩.Chenyang Li - 2019 - 中国哲学与文化 16:51-61.
    Our age is one of globalization. A major characteristic of this age is the interaction, contention, and integration of various cultural and philosophical traditions. In such an environment, Chinese studies can no longer be conducted in isolation, independently of external influences. If we call the 18th-19th centuries the age of reason, the 20th century the age of analysis, the 21st century is the age of comparative study. In our age, the mantra of “interpreting China in terms of (only) Chinese perspectives” (...)
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  50. Declare the Independence of Confucianism from the State.Chenyang Li - 2019 - Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 32:7-16.
    Since antiquity, Confucians have sought to work with the state in order to implement their philosophy through state sponsorship. And yet, whenever Confucians have sought state sponsorship, naturally the government has adopted Confucian philosophy selectively to serve its own purposes and thus compromised the integrity of Confucianism. Throughout Chinese history, countless Confucian officials attempted to help rulers to do the right thing. They often failed when their advice went against the fundamental interest of rulers. On reflection, this outcome should not (...)
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